Larry L. Needham

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BACKGROUND Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tertiary-octylphenol (tOP) are industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins (BPA) and nonionic surfactants (tOP). These products are in widespread use in the United States. OBJECTIVES We aimed to assess exposure to BPA and tOP in the U.S. general population. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used since the 1950s in numerous commercial applications. Exposure of the general U.S. population to PFCs is widespread. Since 2002, the manufacturing practices for PFCs in the United States have changed considerably. OBJECTIVES We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS),(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which are used in baby bottles, as protective coatings on food containers, and for composites and sealants in dentistry. 4-Nonylphenol (NP) is used to make nonylphenol ethoxylates, nonionic surfactants applied as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing, or stabilizing agents in(More)
We measured the urinary monoester metabolites of seven commonly used phthalates in approximately 2,540 samples collected from participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2000, who were greater than or equal to 6 years of age. We found detectable levels of metabolites monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate(More)
Twenty healthy adult humans had serum samples drawn on four occasions within a 24-hr period: after a 12 hr overnight fast, 4-5 hr after a high fat breakfast, at midafternoon, and the next morning after another 12 hr fast. Nonfasting samples had 22% to 29% higher mean concentrations (p less than 0.05) than did fasting samples for polychlorinated biphenyls(More)
Using a novel and highly selective technique, we measured monoester metabolites of seven commonly used phthalates in urine samples from a reference population of 289 adult humans. This analytical approach allowed us to directly measure the individual phthalate metabolites responsible for the animal reproductive and developmental toxicity while avoiding(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have reported developmental toxicity among rodents dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). OBJECTIVES We examined the relationship between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in cord serum (surrogates for in utero exposures) and gestational age, birth weight, and birth size in humans. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant compounds that are persistent and bioaccumulative and therefore have become ubiquitous environment contaminants. Animal studies suggest that prenatal PBDE exposure may result in adverse neurodevelopmental effects. OBJECTIVE In a longitudinal cohort initiated after 11(More)
The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study is a probability-based sample of 102 children 3-13 years old who were monitored for commonly used pesticides. During the summer of 1997, first-morning-void urine samples (1-3 per child) were obtained for 88% of study children and analyzed for metabolites of insecticides and herbicides: carbamates and related(More)
We measured the concentrations of 11 polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs), including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in 1562 serum samples collected from a representative U.S. population 12 years of age and older in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.(More)