Christopher N Wahlheim14
Anthony J Bishara8
14Christopher N Wahlheim
8Anthony J Bishara
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The influence of word reading on Stroop color naming decreases as a function of the proportion of test items that are incongruent. This proportion-congruent effect is usually ascribed to strategies (e.g., maintaining task set) that operate at a general level to moderate the extent to which participants are influenced by word reading. However, in three(More)
In two experiments, we examined spacing effects on the learning of bird families and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that spacing enhanced learning beyond massed study. These effects were increased by presenting birds in pairs so as to highlight differences among families during study (Experiment 1). Self-allocated study time(More)
A dual-process theory of memory was applied to processes in normal aging, with a focus on recognition errors in the feature-conjunction paradigm (i.e., false recognition of blackbird after studying parent words blackmail and/or jailbird). Study repetition was manipulated so that some parent words occurred once and others occurred three times. Age-related(More)
Controlled processing is central to episodic memory retrieval. In the present study, neural correlates of sustained, as well as transient, processing components were explored during controlled retrieval using a mixed blocked event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Results from 29 participants suggest that certain regions in prefrontal(More)
Recognition memory is usually regarded as a judgment based on trace strength or familiarity. But recognition may also be accomplished by constraining retrieval so that only sought after information comes to mind (source-constrained retrieval). We introduce a memory-for-foils paradigm that provides evidence for source-constrained retrieval in recognition(More)
The item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect is the finding of attenuated interference for mostly incongruent as compared to mostly congruent items. A debate in the Stroop literature concerns the mechanisms underlying this effect. Noting a confound between proportion congruency and contingency, Schmidt and Besner (2008) suggested that ISPC effects(More)
The familiarity of names produced by their prior presentation can be misinterpreted as fame. We used this false fame effect to separately study the effects of divided attention on familiarity versus conscious recollection. In a first experiment, famous and nonfamous names were presented to be read under conditions of full vs. divided attention. Divided(More)
Advanced aging is associated with slower and less flexible performance on demanding cognitive tasks. Here we used rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore differences between young (n = 65) and older adults (n = 75) during memory retrieval. Methods were optimized to afford exploration of both amplitude and timing differences in(More)
Segmenting ongoing activity into events is important for later memory of those activities. In the experiments reported in this article, older adults' segmentation of activity into events was less consistent with group norms than younger adults' segmentation, particularly for older adults diagnosed with mild dementia of the Alzheimer type. Among older(More)
Recent research suggests that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects than are young adults; however, that research has failed to equate differences in original learning. In 4 experiments, the authors show that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects produced by a misleading prime. Even when original learning was equated,(More)