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Although the majority of research on human memory has concentrated on a person's ability to recall or recognize items as having been presented in a particular situation, the effects of memory are also revealed in a person's performance of a perceptual task. Prior experience with material can make that material more easily identified or comprehended in(More)
Four experiments examined ironic effects of repetition, effects opposite to those desired (cf. D. M. Wegner, 1994). For an exclusion task, participants were to respond "yes" to words heard earlier but "no" to words that were read earlier. Results from young adults given adequate time to respond showed that false alarms to earlier-read words decreased with(More)
Presenting a word enhances its later perceptual identification. This article focuses on the relation between this effect on perception and recognition memory. Prior experiments have revealed that perceptual enhancement is independent of recognition memory and have led to the two types of task being identified with separate memory systems. In contrast, the(More)
Three experiments investigated assumptions of the process-dissociation procedure for separating consciously controlled and automatic influences of memory. Conditions that encouraged direct retrieval revealed process dissociations. Manipulating attention during study or manipulating study time affected recollection but left automatic influences of memory(More)
The results of two experiments showed that an illusion of memory can be produced by unconscious perception. In a first phase of those experiments, a long list of words was presented for study. For the test of recognition memory given in the second phase of each experiment, presentation of a "context" word preceded that of most recognition test words. Ss(More)
This article challenges the highly intuitive assumption that prejudice should be less likely in public compared with private settings. It proposes that stereotypes may be conceptualized as a type of dominant response (C. L. Hull, 1943; R. B. Zajonc, 1965) whose expression may be enhanced in public settings, especially among individuals high in social(More)
L.L. Jacoby's (1991) "process dissociation procedure" was used to quantitatively estimate the contributions of color-naming and word-reading processes to responding on the Stroop task. The results show that color naming and word reading can operate independently to determine responses. Degrading stimulus colors eliminated the typical asymmetry between(More)
Conscious perception is substantially overestimated when standard measurement techniques are used. That overestimation has contributed to the controversial nature of studies of unconscious perception. A process-dissociation procedure (L. L. Jacoby, 1991) was used for separately estimating the contribution of conscious and unconscious perception to(More)
The influence of word reading on Stroop color naming decreases as a function of the proportion of test items that are incongruent. This proportion-congruent effect is usually ascribed to strategies (e.g., maintaining task set) that operate at a general level to moderate the extent to which participants are influenced by word reading. However, in three(More)
This study applied process dissociation (PD) to investigate the role of conscious goals in controlling automatic influences of stereotypes. A priming procedure was used to show that the presence of Black (vs. White) faces caused stereotypical misidentifi-cations of objects. Specifically, Black primes caused lures to be misidentified as weapons, whereas(More)