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The effects of acutely-administered morphine on mitogen stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell cytolytic activity were investigated. Two hours after a subcutaneous injection of morphine (25 mg/kg), blood lymphocyte proliferation was found to be 70% depressed, compared to saline-injected controls. This effect was partially antagonized in(More)
The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). A description of cost analysis concepts used for economic program evaluation is provided, emphasizing the suitability of these concepts for evaluating educational(More)
We conducted an observational study of parent-child interaction in home activity settings (routines) of families raising young children with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. Our aim was to empirically investigate the construct validity of coercion in typical but unsuccessful family routines. The long-term goal was to develop an expanded(More)
Most measures of adaptive behavior are derived from rating scales. There are only a few instruments that approach the measurement of adaptive behavior through direct testing. In the present study we examined the relative efficacy of rating and testing approaches for predicting criterion behavior. Three tests from the Social and Prevocational Information(More)
The Social and Prevocational Information Battery, a series of knowledge tests developed for use with mildly retarded adolescents, was revised to facilitate assessment of moderately retarded persons knowledge in social and prevocational areas. In addition, the relationship between knowledge and applied performance in these domains was examined. Results(More)
Seventy severely retarded adults were taught a vocational assembly-skill task involving a difficult visual--motor discrimination. Comparisons of relative effects on trials-to-criterion were made among two types of verbal-correction procedures (general: "try another way" and specific: "flat side in") and three types of systematic physical-correction(More)
The effects of verbal corrections on vocational training of severely mentally retarded individuals have not been clear because of lack of measures that are sensitive to differences in such persons' receptive-language skills. Using the verbal subscale of the Trainee Performance Sample, we identified trainees of high and low receptive-language skills. They(More)
The social and Prevocational Information Battery contains nine subtests measuring social and prevocational awareness. It was developed and normed on secondary EMR pupils in Oregon. The battery is easy to administer, orally presented to eliminate reading ability as a determinant of performance, and relatively simple to score and interpret. Information(More)
The Trainee Performance Sample, a vocational skills assessment instrument, was revised to enhance content validity and utility in making vocational skill learning placements for severely retarded individuals. The Trainee Performance Sample employs a process measurement approach; i.e., each of the 30 test items (a variety of benchwork tasks) includes both(More)