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Given that Lactobacillus has been reported to be the causative pathogen in many types of infection despite debate regarding the organism's clinical significance, a literature review was conducted to investigate the treatments and outcomes of Lactobacillus infections reported to date. In this article, the characteristics of over 200 reported cases of(More)
A prospective, randomized double-blind study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of three prophylactic regimens (oral neomycin and erythromycin, intravenous cefoxitin, and a combination of both oral and intravenous antibiotics) in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. One hundred sixty-nine patients were randomized and 146 patients were(More)
The macrolide antimicrobial family is comprised of 14, 15 and 16 member-ringed compounds that are characterized by similar chemical structures, mechanisms of action and resistance, but vary in the different pharmacokinetic parameters, and spectrum of activity. The macrolides accumulate in many tissues such as the epithelial lining fluid and easily enter the(More)
INTRODUCTION Although a strong correlation exists between long-term cigarette smoking, pulmonary inflammation, and COPD, efforts to identify populations at risk of acquiring COPD have so far been unsuccessful. To this end, noninvasive detection and monitoring of biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation in young healthy smokers may assist in this task. STUDY(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine the usage patterns of the lipid-based amphotericin B formulations at our institution and to compare the observed nephrotoxicity and efficacy of these formulations. DESIGN Prospective and retrospective observational study SETTING Urban 350-bed teaching hospital. PATIENTS Sixty-seven nonhemodialysis patients who were(More)
Aminosidine is an older, broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic that has been shown to be effective in in vitro and animal models against multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis and the Mycobacterium avium complex. The objective of this randomized, parallel trial was to characterize the single-dose pharmacokinetics of aminosidine sulfate in healthy subjects(More)
Metronidazole is metabolized to two major oxidative products: an acid metabolite and a hydroxy metabolite. While the activity of the acid metabolite is negligible, the activity of the hydroxy metabolite is approximately 65% of the activity of the parent drug. Pharmacokinetic studies of metronidazole and its hydroxy metabolite have shown that the MICs of(More)
OBJECTIVE To review recent clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data to optimize dosing regimens for polymyxin B and colistin for treatment of infections due to A. baumannii. METHODS A literature search was performed using the search terms Acinetobacter, polymyxin, colistin, polymyxin B on MEDLINE. Additional references were identified from the(More)
CONTEXT Previous surveillance studies have documented increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance in US intensive care units (ICUs) in the early 1990s. OBJECTIVES To assess national rates of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative aerobic isolates recovered from ICU patients and to compare these rates to antimicrobial use. DESIGN AND SETTING(More)