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This study provides a scientific basis for interspecies extrapolation of nasal olfactory irritants from rodents to humans. By using a series of short-term in vivo studies, in vitro studies with nasal explants, and computer modeling, regional nasal tissue dose estimates were made and comparisons of tissue doses between species were conducted. To make these(More)
Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was purified from cultures of Aspergillus flavus, and ca. 14 g of the toxin was collected for use in feeding studies. Chicken rations were artificially contaminated with purified CPA at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 ppm (microgram/g) and fed ad libitum to eight groups of chickens for 7 weeks. Chickens receiving feed with 100 ppm(More)
Five- to six-week-old crossbred pigs weighing 5 to 14 kg were given purified cyclopiazonic acid at dosages of 10, 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 mg/kg body weight orally for 14 days. Clinical signs observed by day 7 in pigs given 10 mg/kg body weight were weakness, inactivity, anorexia, rough hair coats, and reduced body weights. These pigs also developed diarrhea(More)
Effects of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) on humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, weight gain, organ weights, clinical chemical and hematologic values, and gross and microscopic lesions were evaluated. Four groups of rats, each containing 3 males and 3 females, were given 0, 0.1, 1, and 5 mg of CPA/kg of body weight intraperitoneally for 28 days. A dosage(More)
Numerous inhalation studies have demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of a wide range of volatile acids and esters results in cytotoxicity to the nasal olfactory epithelium. Previously, a hybrid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) dosimetry model was constructed to estimate the regional tissue(More)
To assist in interspecies dosimetry comparisons for risk assessment of the nasal effects of organic acids, a hybrid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) dosimetry model was constructed to estimate the regional tissue dose of inhaled vapors in the rat and human nasal cavity. Application to a specific vapor would(More)
BACKGROUND Fetal stress has been linked to adult atherosclerosis, obesity, and diabetes. Epidemiology studies have associated fetal exposure to maternal smoking and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with increased asthma risk. OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis, in a mouse model of asthma, that in utero ETS exposure alters airway(More)
A high frequency of occurrence of a wasting disease, unthriftiness, and retarded growth was observed in a group of inbred Weimaraner dogs. Affected pups had a small thymus gland, with a marked absence of thymic cortex. A litter of eight pups from a sire and dam that were known to have produced affected offspring was chosen for further study. The pups had(More)
A new oncolytic and fusogenic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was constructed on the basis of the wildtype HSV-1(F) strain. To provide for safety and tumor selectivity, the virus carried a large deletion including one of the two alpha4, gamma(1)34.5, alpha0 genes and the latency-associated transcript region. The gamma(1)34.5 gene, a major neurovirulence(More)
A water-soluble nido-carboranyl-tetrabenzoporphyrin has been synthesized in 43% overall yield, by condensation of butanopyrrole with a carboranylbenzaldehyde, followed by metal insertion, oxidation, demetallation and deboronation reactions. This compound accumulated within human glioblastoma T98G cells to a significant higher extent than a structurally(More)