Larry G. Holland

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To distinguish the toxicity of whole oil droplets from compounds dissolved in water, responses of zebrafish embryos exposed to particulate-laden, mechanically dispersed Alaska North Slope crude oil (mechanically dispersed oil (MDO)) were compared to those of embryos protected from direct oil droplet contact by an agarose matrix. Most polycyclic aromatic(More)
Low-density polyethylene membranes, typically filled with triolein, have been previously deployed as passive environmental samplers designed to accumulate nonpolar hydrophobic chemicals from water, sediments, and air. Hydrocarbons in such samplers, known as semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), diffuse through pores in the membranes and are trapped in the(More)
Exposure to high concentrations of crude oil produces a lethal syndrome of heart failure in fish embryos. Mortality is caused by cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ubiquitous components of petroleum. Here, we show that transient embryonic exposure to very low concentrations of oil causes toxicity that is sublethal, delayed, and not(More)
The 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster exposed embryos of pink salmon and Pacific herring to crude oil in shoreline spawning habitats throughout Prince William Sound, Alaska. The herring fishery collapsed four years later. The role of the spill, if any, in this decline remains one of the most controversial unanswered questions in modern natural resource injury(More)
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sequestered MV Selendang Ayu oil were biologically available in 2008, 3.6 y after it was spilled along Unalaska Island, Alaska. Thermodynamically driven weathering was the most probable mechanism of organism exposure to PAHs. Alkane and PAH composition in oil changed over time as smaller constituents were(More)
We deployed semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) on beaches for 28 days at 53 sites in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, to evaluate the induction potential from suspected sources of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A)-inducing contaminants. Sites were selected to assess known point sources, or were chosen randomly to evaluate the region-wide sources. After(More)
We monitored the efficacy of a cleaning method applied to 8-year-old spill oil from the Exxon Valdez that remained on armored portions of beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Removal of oil was attempted in summer 1997 by high-pressure injection of PES-51* into 10,000 m of beach used historically for subsistence food-gathering. Cleaning efficacy was(More)
The analysis of lipid class and fatty acid (FA) composition in juvenile herrring and sandlance demonstrates a high degree of localized variation in the availability of energy that may be related to the abundance of specific prey. Herring and sandlance juveniles were sampled from several locations around Prince William Sound during a two week period in late(More)
Over the past quarter century, petroleum biomarkers have persisted in sequestered Exxon Valdez oil in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska (USA), and hence the oil has remained identifiable. These biomarkers are molecular fossils derived from biochemicals in previously living organisms. Novel pattern matching indicated the presence of Alaska North(More)