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The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using oral modified-release formulations for the purposes of site-specific targeting and regional drug absorption assessment in man. An immediate release pellet formulation containing ranitidine as the model drug of choice for the study was fabricated by extrusion-spheronisation, and then film coated(More)
As indirect measures of rate of drug absorption (metrics), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) is confounded by extent of drug absorption and the time to reach Cmax (tmax) is a discrete variable, dependent on blood sampling frequency. Building on the work of Endrenyi et al., we have compared different metrics, including Cmax/area under the curve of(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the effect of co-administered polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), a pharmaceutical excipient previously shown to accelerate small intestinal transit, on the absorption characteristics of ranitidine from the gastrointestinal tract. METHODS Ten healthy male volunteers each received, on two separate occasions, an immediate-release(More)
The present study was concerned with the feasibility of formulating ranitidine into pellets with a range of alternative excipients in place of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Eight ranitidine formulations employing two or more of the excipients lactose, barium sulfate, glyceryl monostearate, and MCC were processed by extrusion-spheronization, and(More)
The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro stability of ranitidine to colonic bacteria by utilising a batch culture fermentation system to simulate the conditions of the colon. Three quantities of ranitidine, 100, 200 and 500 mg, in the form of the hydrochloride salt, were introduced into individual 100 ml fermenters consisting of buffer medium(More)
The performance of different partial AUCs, including partial AUC from zero to t(max) of the reference formulation (AUC(r)) and partial AUC from zero to tmax of test or reference formulation, whichever occurs earliest (AUC(e), as indirect measures of rate of absorption have been evaluated using simulated experiments. The performance of these metrics relative(More)
Clinical pharmacology studies were undertaken in young healthy volunteers, in a small number of elderly subjects and in migraine subjects during and between attacks. Absorption after subcutaneous and oral administration was rapid. Bioavailability was nearly 100% after subcutaneous administration and averaged 14% after oral administration. Elimination was(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether lamivudine or interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is the more successful treatment for chronic hepatitis B given a fixed drug budget. STUDY DESIGN A decision-tree model of 1 year. PATIENTS AND METHODS Average wholesale prices were used to estimate drug costs. A fixed drug budget of $558,910, sufficient to treat 100 patients with(More)
PURPOSE To assess the effect of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), a pharmaceutical excipient frequently employed to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, on the gastrointestinal transit of liquid and pellet preparations in human subjects using gamma scintigraphy. METHODS Ten, healthy male volunteers each received, on(More)
We investigated the hypothesis that distributions of continuous pharmacokinetic variables are positively skewed in nature and that logarithmic transformation of these variables restores normality. The distributions of common continuous noncompartmental pharmacokinetic variables were investigated for four different Glaxo Wellcome compounds, administered by(More)