Larry D . Sanford

Learn More
The nucleus reticularis pontis oralis (RPO) and nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (RPC) are implicated in the generation of rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Work in cats has indicated that GABA in RPO plays a role in the regulation of REM. We assessed REM after local microinjections into RPO and RPC of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA(A)) agonist,(More)
Significant differences in many aspects of sleep/wake activity among inbred strains of mice suggest genetic influences on the control of sleep. A number of genetic techniques, including transgenesis, random and targeted mutagenesis, and analysis of quantitative trait loci may be used to identify genetic loci. To take full advantage of these genetic(More)
Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is a potential health risk in long-term space travel and represents a significant risk to the central nervous system. The most harmful component of galactic cosmic radiation is the HZE [high mass, highly charged (Z), high energy] particles, e.g., (56)Fe particle. In previous ground-based experiments, exposure to doses(More)
Fear conditioning is thought to model anticipatory anxiety. Inbred mouse strains exhibit different levels of reactivity to aversive environmental stimuli, which may reflect anxiety. We examined the effects of fear conditioning on sleep in mouse strains that differ on behavioral measures of anxiety. Mice (BALB/cJ [C], C57BL/6J [B6], CB6F1/J [CB6], n = 7-10(More)
The amygdala has been implicated in emotional arousal and in the regulation of sleep. Previously, we demonstrated that tetrodotoxin (TTX), a sodium channel blocker that temporarily inactivates neurons and tracts, microinjected into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) during the light period significantly reduced REM, shortened sleep latency, and(More)
Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is believed to play an important inhibitory role in the regulation of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. 5-HT may exert this effect on neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) nuclei that are implicated as important in the generation of REM sleep and phasic REM events such as ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves and(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Inescapable shock (IS), an uncontrollable stressor, and presentation of fearful contexts associated with IS produce prominent reductions in REM sleep. We compared sleep in animals trained with IS to that in animals trained with escapable shock (ES), a controllable stressor, in a paradigm in which animals always received shock but could(More)
Locomotor activity is a key component in many behavioral tests, suggesting that genetic differences in activity levels may be a critical consideration when comparing mouse strains. In order to assess the relationship between activity and performance, we recorded home cage activity, and locomotion and defecation, a non-activity-linked behavior, in tests of(More)
Change in the sleeping environment can produce significant alterations in sleep. To determine how these alterations may vary with the amount of change and the relative reactivity of the sleeper, we examined the influences of environmental novelty on sleep in two mouse strains that differ in behavioral anxiety. Mice [BALB/cJ (n=7) and C57BL/6J (n=8)] were(More)
Cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) and the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) nuclei are implicated in the generation of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves. Serotonin (5-HT) has a role in sleep-wake regulation and appears to inhibit PGO wave generation. We studied the effects of the central infusion of(More)