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Trihalomethanes (THMs) are the most prevalent disinfection by-products identified in chlorinated drinking water. Among the THMs, chloroform (CHCl3) generally occurs at the highest concentration in finished water, but the concentrations of each of the brominated THMs (CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl, and CHBr3) can exceed that of CHCl3. Each of these four THMs was(More)
The examination of a single scientific manuscript seldom alerts scientists, reviewers, editors, and scientific administrators to the fabrication and falsification of data and information. This review shows that most documented cases of scientific fraud involve falsification (altering truthful information) and fabrication (inventing information where none(More)
Although chemical disinfection of drinking water is a highly protective public health practice, the disinfection process is known to produce toxic contaminants. Epidemiological studies associate chlorinated drinking water with quantitatively increased risks of rectal, kidney, and bladder cancer. One study found a significant exposure-response association(More)
Due to the growing numbers of diesel passenger automobiles in the United States, there has been an expanded effort to understand the health effects of airborne pollutants arising from increased automotive emissions. Bacterial mutagenicity testing has played an important role in the characterization of genotoxic effects and components arising from these(More)
Mutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used for large, multi-site, and/or time series studies, for bioassay-directed fractionation studies, for identifying the presence of specific classes of mutagens, and for doing(More)
In the routine São Paulo state (Brazil) surface water quality-monitoring program, which includes the Salmonella microsome mutagenicity assay as one of its parameters, a river where water is taken and treated for drinking water purposes has repeatedly shown mutagenic activity. A textile dyeing facility employing azo-type dyes was the only identifiable source(More)
The present study documents the mutagenicity of a new National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM) in the Salmonella plate incorporation assay. This study is in response to a previous recommendation by the World Health Organization to develop large batches of new SRMs for biological and chemical research. SRM 1975(More)
One challenge for most scientists is avoiding and resolving issues that center around authorship and the publishing of scientific manuscripts. While trying to place the research in proper context, impart new knowledge, follow proper guidelines, and publish in the most appropriate journal, the scientist often must deal with multi-collaborator issues like(More)