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Whole-brain diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) at high signal-to-noise ratio and angular and spatial resolutions were utilized to study the effects of age, sex differences, and lateral asymmetries of 6 white matter pathways (arcuate fasciculus [AF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], uncinate fasciculus [UF],(More)
An algorithm and set of procedures for measuring volumes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), white matter, and gray matter from transaxial magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain are described. The algorithm is a variant of the fuzzy c-means clustering method for texture identification. This technique is used mainly to solve the problem of volume averaging(More)
Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has been reported in cocaine dependent subjects compared to non-drug using controls. There are several pathological mechanisms that could be responsible for these findings, since FA can be reduced through damage to axonal tracts and by neuronal loss. One way of obtaining more information(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether children with shunted hydrocephalus show variations in regional brain tissue composition that relate to cognitive functions. DESIGN Nonequivalent control group. PATIENTS AND METHODS Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cognitive skills assessments were obtained on 28 children, 6 to 9 years of age, with shunted(More)
Behavioral dysregulation is a common and detrimental consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children that contributes to poor academic achievement and deficits in social development. Unfortunately, behavioral dysregulation is difficult to predict from either injury severity or early neuropsychological evaluation. The uncinate fasciculus (UF)(More)
Recent studies demonstrated that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can provide information regarding white matter integrity of the corpus callosum (CC). In this study, DTI parameters were compared between cocaine dependent subjects (CDs) and non-drug using controls (NCs) in midsagittal CC. DTI images were acquired from 19 CDs and 18 age-matched NCs. The(More)
Brain imaging studies find evidence of prefrontal cortical dysfunction in cocaine-dependent subjects. Similarly, cocaine-dependent subjects have problems with behaviors related to executive function and impulsivity. Since prefrontal cortical axonal tracts cross between hemispheres in the corpus callosum, it is possible that white matter integrity in the(More)
The human brain uncinate fasciculus (UF) is an important cortico-cortical white matter pathway that directly connects the frontal and temporal lobes, although there is a lack of conclusive support for its exact functional role. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we extracted the UF, calculated its volume and normalized it with respect to each subject's(More)
We used a diffusion tensor imaging-based whole-brain tissue segmentation to characterize age-related changes in (a) whole-brain grey matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid relative to intracranial volume and (b) the corresponding brain tissue microstructure using measures of diffusion tensor anisotropy and mean diffusivity. The sample, a healthy(More)