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Contemporary mechanistic models of several psychiatric disorders propose abnormalities in the structure and function of distinct neural networks. The cerebellum has both anatomic and functional connections to the prefrontal cortex, the subcortical limbic structures and monoamine-producing brainstem nuclei. Conspicuously, however, the cerebellum has been(More)
Cognitive biases in information processing play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of emotional disorders. A new methodology to measure attentional biases is presented; this approach encourages subjects to scan and re-scan images with different thematic content, while the pattern of their attentional deployment is continuously monitored by an(More)
BACKGROUND Symptomatic remission is the optimal outcome in depression. A brief, validated tool for symptom measurement that can indicate when remission has occurred in mental health and primary care settings is unavailable. We evaluated a 7-item abbreviated version (HAMD-7) of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) in a randomized controlled(More)
An investigation was carried out to test the hypothesis that the area postrema (AP) may detect ethanol as a blood-borne toxin and thereby mediate aversive postingestinal effects of the drug. These aversive effects in turn may impose an upper limit on the amount of drug that can be consumed. In Experiment 1 rats had continuous access to water and a 4%(More)
The hypothesis was tested that ethanol, self-administered via the oral route, would mediate a conditioned preference for the environment in which the drug was consumed. Ten rats were trained to drink an 8% (weight/volume) ethanol solution in association with one environment and had a different environment paired with the availability of water. Ten control(More)
BACKGROUND The association between circulating total testosterone (TT) levels and depressive symptoms remains unclear. We sought to determine the relationship between physiologically active bioavailable testosterone (BT) and depressive symptoms in middle-aged men with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS We assessed and compared calculated(More)
Different groups of rats were pretreated with the dopamine receptor blocker, pimozide (0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg), in an attempt to investigate the role of dopaminergic transmission in the acquisition, maintenance, and extinction of a taste aversion produced by d-amphetamine dulphate (1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg). In the first phase of the experiment, all doses of(More)
A previous experiment has shown that rats will avoid environmental cues that have been associated with a history of ethanol self-administration. One possible explanation for this conditioned place aversion may be related to the temporal parameters of that experiment. During the initial segment of each 90-min conditioning/drinking trial (when most of the(More)
Procedures almost exclusively involving the use of operant conditioning equipment have been successful in training rats to drink ethanol and establishing ethanol as a reinforcer. The present report describes a variation of this procedure which, in a relatively short period of time also establishes ethanol as a reinforcer, results in significant blood(More)
The effects of four doses of ethanol (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg) administered IV, on the spontaneous firing rate of single units in the dorsal hippocampal regin of the rat were studied. At the lower doses, a mixture of excitatory and inhibitory effects occurring in that order was seen, reflecting a biphasic action of ethanol at the level of the single(More)