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Cognitive biases in information processing play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of emotional disorders. A new methodology to measure attentional biases is presented; this approach encourages subjects to scan and re-scan images with different thematic content, while the pattern of their attentional deployment is continuously monitored by an(More)
BACKGROUND Symptomatic remission is the optimal outcome in depression. A brief, validated tool for symptom measurement that can indicate when remission has occurred in mental health and primary care settings is unavailable. We evaluated a 7-item abbreviated version (HAMD-7) of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) in a randomized controlled(More)
Animals studies have shown that insulin injections reduce alcohol intake, implicating glucoregulatory processes in alcohol consumption. Angiotensin (ANG) II reduces alcohol intake and promotes glycogen breakdown in the liver but no studies have assessed the role of glucoregulatory processes in ANG II's effect. Similarly, glucose injections attenuate the(More)
Extensive research has shown that manipulations that augment activity in the renin-angiotensin system can reduce alcohol intake. Inhibition of aminopeptidase B and M can prolong the action of angiotensin (ANG) II and ANG III by preventing their degradation. This study assessed the ability of bestatin, an aminopeptidase B and M inhibitor, to decrease alcohol(More)
Contemporary mechanistic models of several psychiatric disorders propose abnormalities in the structure and function of distinct neural networks. The cerebellum has both anatomic and functional connections to the prefrontal cortex, the subcortical limbic structures and monoamine-producing brainstem nuclei. Conspicuously, however, the cerebellum has been(More)
Alcoholism is a prevalent problem of contemporary society, yet there are virtually no clinically effective drugs for the management of this disorder. A previous study demonstrating the ability of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to attenuate voluntary alcohol intake in rats prompted the suggestion that these drugs, currently marketed for the(More)
The hypothesis was tested that ethanol, self-administered via the oral route, would mediate a conditioned preference for the environment in which the drug was consumed. Ten rats were trained to drink an 8% (weight/volume) ethanol solution in association with one environment and had a different environment paired with the availability of water. Ten control(More)
An investigation was carried out to test the hypothesis that the area postrema (AP) may detect ethanol as a blood-borne toxin and thereby mediate aversive postingestinal effects of the drug. These aversive effects in turn may impose an upper limit on the amount of drug that can be consumed. In Experiment 1 rats had continuous access to water and a 4%(More)