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Reserpine, a monoamine-depleting agent, which irreversibly and non-selectively blocks the vesicular monoamine transporter, has been used as an animal model to study several neurological disorders, including tardive dyskinesia and Parkinson’s disease. The purpose of this study was to examine if motor deficits induced by reserpine in mice could be related to(More)
Involuntary oral movements are present in several diseases and pharmacological conditions; however, their etiology and efficient treatments remain unclear. Gallic acid is a natural polyphenolic acid found in gall nuts, sumac, oak bark, tea leaves, grapes and wine, with potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic activity. Thus, the present study investigated the(More)
Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as devil’s claw, is a plant commonly used in the treatment of diseases of inflammatory origin. The anti-inflammatory effects of H. procumbens have been studied; however, the mechanism of action is not elucidated. It is known that excess of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may contribute to increasing tissue(More)
Long-term treatment with fluphenazine is associated with manifestation of extrapyramidal side effects, such as tardive dyskinesia. The molecular mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of TD remain unclear, and several hypotheses, including a role for oxidative stress, have been proposed. Harpagophytum procumbens is an herbal medicine used mainly due to(More)
Antipsychotic drugs have been used in the treatment of schizophrenia and their long-term use can cause movement disorders, such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) in humans mainly typical ones such as haloperidol. Neuroinflammation has been implicated to the use of antipsychotics besides its participation in TD remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to(More)
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