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Resveratrol, a polyphenol presents in grapes and wine, displays antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cytoprotective effect in brain pathologies associated to oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. In previous work, we demonstrated that resveratrol exerts neuroglial modulation, improving glial functions, mainly related to glutamate metabolism.(More)
Astrocytes sense, integrate, and respond to stimuli generated by neurons or neural injury; this response involves gap junction (GJ) communication. Neuronal vulnerability to injury increased when cocultures of astrocytes and neurons were exposed to GJ inhibitors. However, GJ uncoupling could limit the extension of a lesion. We investigated a possible link(More)
S100B is a calcium-binding protein, produced and secreted by astrocytes, which has a putative paracrine neurotrophic activity. Clinical studies have suggested that peripheral elevation of this protein is positively correlated with a therapeutic antidepressant response, particularly to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); however, the mechanism(More)
Guanosine, a guanine-based purine, is an extracellular signaling molecule that is released from astrocytes and shows neuroprotective effects in several in vivo and in vitro studies. Our group recently showed that guanosine presents antioxidant properties in C6 astroglial cells. The heme oxygenase 1 signaling pathway is associated with protection against(More)
Ammonia is implicated as a neurotoxin in brain metabolic disorders associated with hyperammonemia. Acute ammonia toxicity can be mediated by an excitotoxic mechanism, oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) production. Astrocytes interact with neurons, providing metabolic support and protecting against oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. Astrocytes also(More)
Although classical and atypical antipsychotics may have different neurotoxic effects, their underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated, especially regarding neuroglial function. In the present study, we compared the atypical antipsychotic risperidone (0.01-10 μM) with the typical antipsychotic haloperidol (0.01-10 μM) regarding different aspects such as(More)
Astrocytes play a fundamental role in glutamate metabolism by regulating the extracellular levels of glutamate and intracellular levels of glutamine. They also participate in antioxidant defenses, due to the synthesis of glutathione, coupled to glutamate metabolism. Although the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive, some changes in(More)
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and over-stimulation of the glutamate receptors, NMDA, AMPA and kainate (KA), may cause neuronal death in epilepsy, seizures and neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria have critical cellular functions that influence neuronal excitability, such as regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and ATP(More)
Physical exercise effects on brain health and cognitive performance have been described. Synaptic remodeling in hippocampus induced by physical exercise has been described in animal models, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Changes in astrocytes, the glial cells involved in synaptic remodeling, need more characterization. We(More)
Alpha lipoic acid (LA) is a sulfhydryl compound, used as dietary supplement and to treat a variety of conditions associated to oxidative stress. Glial cells are key modulators of neuroprotection. We show here that LA modulates specific glial parameters in C6 astrocyte cell line, such as glutamate uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and glutathione(More)