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Numerous factors impact the dynamics of host-parasite relationships, such as host sex, hormonal state, reproductive condition, host health, and behavior. In particular, males from a variety of taxa frequently carry heavier parasite burdens than females, particularly during breeding season when testosterone concentrations are elevated. Using western fence(More)
Amblyomma americanum (Linneaus) (Acari: Ixodidae), an important tick vector of human and animal disease, is not a competent vector of the bacterial agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, although its range overlaps the geographical distribution of Lyme disease within the United States. A possible mechanism that could prevent acquisition of B.(More)
This study was conducted to determine if the biology of certain ticks associated with horses regulates the spatial and temporal distribution of equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis (EGE) in California north of Monterey County. We compared the spatial and temporal distribution of EGE cases with the seasons of activity and life histories of ticks that infest(More)
Parasitism is one of the most notable forms of symbiosis in the biological world, with nearly all organisms hosting parasites. In many vertebrates, males have higher ectoparasite burdens than females, especially when testosterone concentrations are elevated. Furthermore, reproductive females may have higher ectoparasite burdens than non-reproductive(More)
—Seasonal variability in intensities of ectoparasites of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) was quantified in spring, summer, and autumn 2008. Lizards were suspended over pans of water in the laboratory to enumerate replete western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus) and mites. Intensity of ectoparasites was greatest in spring. On average,(More)
Ehrlichia DNA was identified by nested PCR in operculate snails (Pleuroceridae: Juga spp.) collected from stream water in a northern California pasture in which Potomac horse fever (PHF) is enzootic. Sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA from a suite of genes (the 16S rRNA, groESL heat shock operon, 51-kDa major antigen genes) indicated that the source organism(More)
A total of 1,246 ixodid ticks collected in 1995 and 1996 from seven California counties were examined for the presence of Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae by using a nested PCR technique. Of 1,112 adult Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls ticks tested, nine pools, each containing five ticks, were positive (minimum percentage of ticks harboring(More)
Parasites with indirect life cycles require trophic transmission from intermediate hosts to definitive (vertebrate) hosts. Transmission may be facilitated if parasite infection alters the behavior of intermediate hosts such that they are more vulnerable to predation. Vulnerability to predation may also be influenced by abiotic factors; however, rarely are(More)
An undescribed wasp, Pteromalus nr. myopitae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) opportunistically parasitiz-es the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), an introduced pest of olives in Califor-nia. The native or typical host of P. nr. myopitae is unknown. We demonstrate that P. nr. myopitae is a solitary, ectoparasitic, idiobiont(More)
This is the first report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from San Luis Obispo county, with most isolates obtained from a previously unreported host, Neotoma lepida Thomas. B. burgdorferi sensu lato was identified in seven rodent species, including the California vole, Microtus californicus Peale; dusky-footed woodrat, Neotoma fuscipes Baird;(More)
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