Larisa K. Vredevoe

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Parasitism is one of the most notable forms of symbiosis in the biological world, with nearly all organisms hosting parasites. In many vertebrates, males have higher ectoparasite burdens than females, especially when testosterone concentrations are elevated. Furthermore, reproductive females may have higher ectoparasite burdens than non-reproductive(More)
Parasites with indirect life cycles require trophic transmission from intermediate hosts to definitive (vertebrate) hosts. Transmission may be facilitated if parasite infection alters the behavior of intermediate hosts such that they are more vulnerable to predation. Vulnerability to predation may also be influenced by abiotic factors; however, rarely are(More)
—Seasonal variability in intensities of ectoparasites of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) was quantified in spring, summer, and autumn 2008. Lizards were suspended over pans of water in the laboratory to enumerate replete western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus) and mites. Intensity of ectoparasites was greatest in spring. On average,(More)
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