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Epitaxial graphene films have been formed on the C-face of semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrates by a high temperature sublimation process. Nanoscale square antidot arrays have been fabricated on these graphene films. At low temperatures, magnetoconductance in these films exhibits pronounced Aharonov–Bohm oscillations with the period corresponding to magnetic(More)
A rigid formalism has been developed for the calculation of the order parameter S for fluorescence probes embedded in environments that hinder the motions of the probes and for calculation of a "cone angle" of fluorophore rotation from the order parameters. The motions of the fluorescence probes 1,6-diphenylhexa-1,3,5-triene (DPH) and(More)
We have recently established four new human breast cancer cell lines that were characterized as being of human mammary origin. We examined these cell lines for particles morphologically resembling retroviruses by electron microscopy, for extracellular and intracellular particles containing high-molecular-weight RNA and RNA-directed DNA polymerase by(More)
We report studies of pinning mode resonances in the low total Landau filling (nu) Wigner solid of a series of bilayer hole samples with negligible interlayer tunneling and with varying interlayer separation d. Comparison of states with equal layer densities (p,p) to single layer states (p,0) produced in situ by biasing, indicates that there is interlayer(More)
In high magnetic fields, two-dimensional electron systems can form a number of phases in which interelectron repulsion plays the central role, since the kinetic energy is frozen out by Landau quantization. These phases include the well-known liquids of the fractional quantum Hall effect, as well as solid phases with broken spatial symmetry and crystalline(More)
A method for immobilization of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis on an adsorptive membrane for the continuous synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose was carried out. The immobilization was performed at 4, 10, 15 and 40°C. Two strongly basic anion exchange membranes with tradename Mustang TM Q and Sartobind TM Q were investigated. In(More)
We study the radio-frequency diagonal conductivities of the anisotropic stripe phases of higher Landau levels near half-integer fillings. In the hard direction, in which larger dc resistivity occurs, the spectrum exhibits a striking resonance, while in the orthogonal, easy direction, no resonance is discernible. The resonance is interpreted as a pinning(More)
For filling factors nu in the range between 4.16 and 4.28, we simultaneously detect two resonances in the real diagonal microwave conductivity of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) at low temperature T approximately 35 mK. We attribute the resonance to Wigner-crystal and Bubble phases of the 2DES in higher Landau Levels. For nu below and above this(More)
At the low Landau filling factor termination of the fractional quantum Hall effect series, two-dimensional electron systems exhibit an insulating phase that is understood as a form of pinned Wigner solid. Here we use microwave spectroscopy to probe the transition to the insulator for a wide quantum well sample that can support single-layer or bilayer states(More)
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