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The rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis is tyrosine hydroxylase. It is phosphorylated at serine (Ser) residues Ser8, Ser19, Ser31 and Ser40 in vitro, in situ and in vivo. A range of protein kinases and protein phosphatases are able to phosphorylate or dephosphorylate these sites in vitro. Some of these enzymes are able to regulate tyrosine(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by two major neuropathological hallmarks: the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the presence of Lewy bodies in the surviving SN neurons, as well as other regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Animal models(More)
The regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate limiting enzyme involved in catecholamine synthesis) is critical for the acute and sustained release of catecholamines from adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, however the mechanisms involved have only ever been investigated under in vitro/in situ conditions. Here we explored the effects on, TH(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of angiotensin II (AII) on tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH) activity and phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BACCs). We report here that stimulation of BACCs with AII (100 nM) produced a significant increase in both TOH activity and phosphorylation over a period of 10 min. The increase in TOH(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. Its activity is known to be controlled acutely (minutes) by phosphorylation and chronically (days) by protein synthesis. Using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells we found that nicotine, acting via nicotinic receptors, sustained the phosphorylation of TH at Ser40 for up to 48 h.(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, is regulated acutely by protein phosphorylation and chronically by protein synthesis. No studies have systematically investigated the phosphorylation of these sites in vivo in response to stressors. We specifically investigated the phosphorylation of TH occurring within the(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, is regulated acutely by protein phosphorylation. No studies have systematically investigated the time course of TH phosphorylation in vivo in response to different stressors. We therefore determined the extent of TH phosphorylation at Ser19, Ser31, and Ser40 over a 40-min(More)
Stress activates selected neuronal systems in the brain and this leads to activation of a range of effector systems. Our aim was to investigate some of the relationships between these systems under basal conditions and over a 40-min period in response to footshock stress. Specifically, we investigated catecholaminergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC),(More)
Angiotensin II (AII, 100 nM) stimulation of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BACCs) produced angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT1)-mediated increases in extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and stress-activated p38MAPK (p38 kinase) phosphorylation over a period of 10 min. ERK1/2 and p38 kinase phosphorylation preceded Ser31 phosphorylation(More)
The expression of c-Fos defines brain regions activated by the stressors hypotension and glucoprivation however, whether this identifies all brain sites involved is unknown. Furthermore, the neurochemicals that delineate these regions, or are utilized in them when responding to these stressors remain undefined. Conscious rats were subjected to hypotension,(More)