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The rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis is tyrosine hydroxylase. It is phosphorylated at serine (Ser) residues Ser8, Ser19, Ser31 and Ser40 in vitro, in situ and in vivo. A range of protein kinases and protein phosphatases are able to phosphorylate or dephosphorylate these sites in vitro. Some of these enzymes are able to regulate tyrosine(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by two major neuropathological hallmarks: the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the presence of Lewy bodies in the surviving SN neurons, as well as other regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Animal models(More)
The regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate limiting enzyme involved in catecholamine synthesis) is critical for the acute and sustained release of catecholamines from adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, however the mechanisms involved have only ever been investigated under in vitro/in situ conditions. Here we explored the effects on, TH(More)
Lead (Pb2+) is a cytotoxic metal ion whose mechanism of action is not established. However, Pb2+ is known to interact with a wide variety of molecules involved in signal transduction. In this study the effect of Pb2+ on protein phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells and human SH SY5Y cells was examined. Cells were incubated with 32P(i) for 1 h(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of angiotensin II (AII) on tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH) activity and phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BACCs). We report here that stimulation of BACCs with AII (100 nM) produced a significant increase in both TOH activity and phosphorylation over a period of 10 min. The increase in TOH(More)
The major human tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms (hTH1 and 2) differ in their ability to be phosphorylated in vitro. hTH1 is phosphorylated at Ser31 by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). This kinase is not capable of phosphorylating hTH2 at Ser35 (the residue that corresponds to Ser31 in hTH1). We have stably transfected SH-SY5Y cells with hTH1 or(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. Its activity is known to be controlled acutely (minutes) by phosphorylation and chronically (days) by protein synthesis. Using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells we found that nicotine, acting via nicotinic receptors, sustained the phosphorylation of TH at Ser40 for up to 48 h.(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, is regulated acutely by protein phosphorylation and chronically by protein synthesis. No studies have systematically investigated the phosphorylation of these sites in vivo in response to stressors. We specifically investigated the phosphorylation of TH occurring within the(More)
Manganese (Mn2+) is an essential metal involved in normal functioning of a range of physiological processes. However,occupational overexposure to Mn2+ causes neurotoxicity. The dopaminergic system is a particular target for Mn2+ neurotoxicity.Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis and is regulated acutely by(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of the catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. In response to short term stimuli TH activity is primarily controlled by phosphorylation of serine 40. We have previously shown that phosphorylation of serine 19 in TH can indirectly activate TH via a hierarchical(More)