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Concepts of containment, support, and degree of fit were investigated using nonverbal, preferential-looking tasks with 9- to 14-month-old infants and adults who were fluent in either English or Korean. Two contrasts were tested: tight containment vs. loose support (grammaticized as 'in' and 'on' in English by spatial prepositions and 'kkita' and 'nohta' in(More)
The traditional view of inductive generalization in infancy is that it rests on perceptual similarity; infants are said to form perceptually based categories, such as dogs and cats, and then to associate various properties with them. Superordinate-level inductions, such as generalizations about animals as a domain, have been considered to be more abstract(More)
We tested amnesic patients, patients with frontal lobe lesions, and control subjects with the deferred imitation task, a nonverbal test used to demonstrate memory abilities in human infants. On day 1, subjects were given sets of objects to obtain a baseline measure of their spontaneous performance of target actions. Then different event sequences were(More)
Three studies assessed the ability of 2-year-olds to use semantic context to infer the meanings of novel nouns and to retain those meanings a day later. In the first experiment, 24 2-year-olds heard novel nouns in sentences that contained semantically constraining verbs (e.g., "Mommy feeds the ferret"). They chose from a set of four novel object pictures to(More)
The first experiment shows that 11-month-olds can encode novel causal events from a brief period of observational learning, and recall much of the information after 24 h. The second experiment, using both a longitudinal and a cross-sectional design, shows recall of the same events after a delay of 3 months. The infants remembered more individual actions(More)
Distress-linked activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is considered a pathway by which affect regulation impacts the fetal milieu and neurodevelopment. There is little direct evidence for this conceptual model. In 103 women [mean age 27.45 (±5.65) years] at 36-38 weeks gestation, salivary cortisol was measured before/after(More)
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate symbolic-deficit and memory-deficit hypotheses to account for the cognitive problems seen in children with autism. Experiment 1 tested imitation, in immediate and deferred conditions, of familiar actions with different sets of objects representing the developmental progression from functional to symbolic play. The(More)
Subjects who had participated in a study on non-verbal recall before their first birthday returned to the laboratory one year later and were tested for recall of their previous visit. During their previous visit they had shown recall of both familiar and novel actions on a set of novel objects. However, after a year's delay, evidence for recall was found(More)