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Bone-marrow-derived cells facilitate tumour angiogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms of this facilitation are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that the related EG-VEGF and Bv8 proteins, also known as prokineticin 1 (Prok1) and prokineticin 2 (Prok2), promote both tissue-specific angiogenesis and haematopoietic cell mobilization. Unlike(More)
Tumor- or cancer-associated fibroblasts (TAFs or CAFs) from different tumors exhibit distinct angiogenic and tumorigenic properties. Unlike normal skin fibroblasts or TAFs from TIB6 tumors that are sensitive to anti-VEGF treatment (TAF-TIB6), TAFs from resistant EL4 tumors (TAF-EL4) can stimulate TIB6 tumor growth even when VEGF is inhibited. We show that(More)
Recent studies suggest that tumor-associated CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells contribute to refractoriness to antiangiogenic therapy with an anti-VEGF-A antibody. However, the mechanisms of peripheral mobilization and tumor-homing of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells are unclear. Here, we show that, compared with other cytokines [granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating(More)
Priming of the organ-specific premetastatic sites is thought to be an important yet incompletely understood step during metastasis. In this study, we show that the metastatic tumors we examined overexpress granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), which expands and mobilizes Ly6G+Ly6C+ granulocytes and facilitates their subsequent homing at distant(More)
Activated fibroblasts are thought to play important roles in the progression of many solid tumors, but little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the recruitment of fibroblasts in tumors. Using several methods, we identified platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGFA) as the major fibroblast chemoattractant and mitogen from conditioned medium(More)
We generated VEGF-null fibrosarcomas from VEGF-loxP mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate the mechanisms of tumor escape after VEGF inactivation. These cells were found to be tumorigenic and angiogenic in vivo in spite of the absence of tumor-derived VEGF. However, VEGF derived from host stroma was readily detected in the tumor mass and treatment with(More)
Cells of the innate immune system have a key role in maintaining homeostasis by providing the first line of defense against many pathogens. Innate immunity can also modulate the activity of acquired immunity by several mechanisms. However, subsets of myeloid cells can facilitate tumor growth, because these cells produce angiogenic factors and can also(More)
VEGF-A is important in tumor angiogenesis, and a humanized anti-VEGF-A monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab) has been approved by the FDA as a treatment for metastatic colorectal and nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer in combination with chemotherapy. However, contributions of both tumor- and stromal-cell derived VEGF-A to vascularization of human tumors(More)
PURPOSE Bevacizumab is a humanized anti-human VEGF-A monoclonal antibody (mAb) approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for cancer therapy and used off label to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Earlier studies characterized bevacizumab as species specific and lacking the ability to neutralize murine (m) VEGF-A. However,(More)
VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length(More)