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The surface expression of MHC I is reduced in HIV-infected cells. We show that the Nef protein affects the intracellular sorting of HLA-A and -B molecules. In the presence of Nef, these proteins accumulate in the Golgi and colocalize with clathrin-coated vesicles. MHC I modulation relies on a tyrosine-based sorting signal located in the cytoplasmic domain(More)
Mammalian peroxisomal proteins adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP), and 70-kDa peroxisomal protein (PMP70) belong to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Unlike many ABC transporters that are single functional proteins with two related halves, ALDP, ALDRP, and PMP70 have the structure of(More)
Reverse transcription of the genetic material of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a critical step in the replication cycle of this virus. This process, catalyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT), is well characterized at the biochemical level. However, in infected cells, reverse transcription occurs in a multiprotein complex – the reverse(More)
The Vpu and CD4 cytoplasmic domains were found, by using a two-hybrid assay in yeast, to interact in the absence of their membrane anchor domains. Studies on several deletion and point mutants revealed that the overall structure of the Vpu cytoplasmic domain is required for this interaction. The Vpu amino acid residues involved in the interaction with CD4(More)
Vpr and Vpx proteins from human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) are incorporated into virions in quantities equivalent to those of the viral Gag proteins. We demonstrate here that Vpr and Vpx proteins from distinct lineages of primate lentiviruses were able to bind to their respective Gag precursors. The capacity of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr(More)
Nef is a 27-kDa myristoylated protein conserved in primate lentiviruses. In vivo, simian immunodeficiency virus Nef is required in macaques to produce a high viral load and full pathological effects. Nef has at least three major effects in vitro, induction of CD4 down-regulation, alteration of T cell activation pathways, and enhancement of viral(More)
Nef is a myristoylated protein of 27 to 35 kDa that is conserved in primate lentiviruses. In vivo, Nef is required for high viral load and full pathological effects. In vitro, Nef has at least four activities: induction of CD4 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I downregulation, enhancement of viral infectivity, and alteration of T-cell(More)
Like all retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergoes reverse transcription during its replication cycle. The cellular cofactors potentially involved in this process still remain to be identified. We show here that A-kinase anchoring protein 149 (AKAP149) interacts with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) in both the yeast two-hybrid(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against some insect pests in sprays and transgenic crops, although the evolution of resistance could threaten the long-term efficacy of such Bt use. One strategy to delay resistance to Bt crops is to "pyramid" two or more Bt proteins that bind to distinct receptor proteins within(More)