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Two-thirds of the world's HIV-infected people live in sub-Saharan Africa, and more than 1.5 million of them die annually. As access to antiretroviral treatment has expanded within the region; early pessimism concerning the delivery of antiretroviral treatment using a large-scale public health approach has, at least in the short term, proved to be broadly(More)
Despite the high prevalence of both mental disorders and HIV infection in much of sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the occurrence of mental health disorders among HIV-infected individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study among individuals enrolled into HIV care and treatment services near Cape Town, South Africa. Psychiatric diagnoses were(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the burden and impact of immune reconstitution disease (IRD) associated with tuberculosis (TB) among patients initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of a study cohort enrolled over 3 years within a community-based ART service in South Africa. METHODS Patients receiving(More)
Tailoring sexual and reproductive health services to meet the needs of people living with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) is a growing concern but there are few insights into these issues where HIV is most prevalent. This cross-sectional study investigated the fertility intentions and associated health care needs of 459 women and men, not sampled as(More)
This article reports on qualitative research investigating HIV positive individuals' reproductive intentions and their influencing factors in Cape Town, South Africa. In-depth interviews were held with 61 HIV positive women and men; at the time of interview, half had been receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) for over 6 months and half were not receiving(More)
Despite the increased emphasis on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and other health care services for HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, issues of fertility and childbearing have received relatively little attention. In particular, little is known about the prevalence and determinants of fertility intentions among HIV-infected women and men who are(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine rates, risk factors and causes of death among patients accessing a community-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme both prior to and following initiation of treatment. METHODS All in-programme deaths were ascertained between September 2002 and March 2005 among treatment-naive patients enrolled into a prospective(More)
BACKGROUND Prognostic models have been developed for patients infected with HIV-1 who start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-income countries, but not for patients in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed two prognostic models to estimate the probability of death in patients starting ART in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS We analysed data for adult(More)
BACKGROUND With the rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) services in sub-Saharan Africa there is growing recognition of the importance of fertility and childbearing among HIV-infected women. However there are few data on whether ART initiation influences pregnancy rates. METHODS AND FINDINGS We analyzed data from the Mother-to-Child(More)
There is substantial evidence from developed countries that lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with increased occurrence of mental illness, and growing interest in the role of social support and social capital in mental health. However, there are few data on social determinants of mental health from low- and middle-income nations. We examined(More)