Lance M. Dodes

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In this paper, the proposal is advanced that addictions may be understood analytically to be a subset of compulsions, and correspondingly that they may frequently be suitable for psychoanalytic treatment. A revision of the definition of addictions and compulsions is suggested, and some treatment implications of this revision are considered.
In many cases addictive behavior serves to ward off a sense of helplessness or powerlessness via controlling and regulating one's affective state. Addicts have a vulnerability to feelings of powerlessness, which reflects a specific narcissistic impairment. The drive in addiction to re-establish a sense of power is, correspondingly, impelled by narcissistic(More)
A review of the substance abuse literature in the 1980s focuses on deficits in self-regulating capacities, in self-care functions, and in other vulnerabilities of the self, such as an inappropriate use of defenses and problems in intimacy. Various models which attempt to explain these behaviors are described, as well as techniques of dynamic psychotherapy(More)
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