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"Subitizing," the process of enumeration when there are fewer than 4 items, is rapid (40-100 ms/item), effortless, and accurate. "Counting," the process of enumeration when there are more than 4 items, is slow (250-350 ms/item), effortful, and error-prone. Why is there a difference in the way the small and large numbers of items are enumerated? A theory of(More)
Subitizing, the enumeration of 1-4 items, is rapid (40-120 ms/item) and accurate. Counting, the enumeration of 5 items or more, is slow (250-350 ms/item) and error-prone. Why are small numbers of items enumerated differently from large numbers of items? It is suggested that subitizing relies on a preattentive mechanism. Ss could subitize heterogeneously(More)
Inexperience is one of the strongest predictors for collisions, but it remains unclear how novice drivers differ from experienced drivers in terms of safety-related behavioural adaptations such as speed reduction in the presence of reduced visibility. To investigate the influence of driving experience on behavioural compensations to fog, average speed,(More)
It is widely accepted that there exists a region or locus of maximal resource allocation in visual perception--sometimes referred to as the spotlight of attention. We have argued that even if there is a single locus of processing, there must be multiple loci of parallel access--several places in the visual field must be indexed at once and these indexes can(More)
Multiple-object tracking involves simultaneously tracking positions of a number of target-items as they move among distractors. The standard version of the task poses special challenges for children, demanding extended concentration and the ability to distinguish targets from identical-looking dis-tractors, and may thus underestimate children's tracking(More)
Currently little is known about how adaptive responses to virtual environments are different between individuals who experience sickness related symptoms and those who do not. It is believed that sensory interactions between visually perceived self-motion and static inertial cues from vestibular and/or proprioceptive sensory systems contribute to the(More)
This study investigates the effects of item heterogeneity (differences in color and shape) and moment-to-moment feature change as it relates to the issue of whether subitizing and counting involve different processes. Participants enumerated displays of up to eight items that were either homogeneous or heterogeneous. In situations where the heterogeneous(More)
The gambler's fallacy was examined in terms of grouping processes. The gambler's fallacy is the tendency to erroneously believe that for independent events, recent or repeated instances of an outcome (e.g., a series of "heads" when flipping a coin) will make that outcome less likely on an upcoming trial. Grouping was manipulated such that a critical trial(More)
Multiple-object tracking is the ability to attend (keep track of) the positions of multiple target items as they move among other items. The performance of young and older adults (M = 19 and 73 years old, respectively) was compared in two versions of a tracking task in which participants were required to monitor the positions of 1-4 moving targets in a(More)