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"Subitizing," the process of enumeration when there are fewer than 4 items, is rapid (40-100 ms/item), effortless, and accurate. "Counting," the process of enumeration when there are more than 4 items, is slow (250-350 ms/item), effortful, and error-prone. Why is there a difference in the way the small and large numbers of items are enumerated? A theory of(More)
Subitizing, the enumeration of 1-4 items, is rapid (40-120 ms/item) and accurate. Counting, the enumeration of 5 items or more, is slow (250-350 ms/item) and error-prone. Why are small numbers of items enumerated differently from large numbers of items? It is suggested that subitizing relies on a preattentive mechanism. Ss could subitize heterogeneously(More)
It is widely accepted that there exists a region or locus of maximal resource allocation in visual perception--sometimes referred to as the spotlight of attention. We have argued that even if there is a single locus of processing, there must be multiple loci of parallel access--several places in the visual field must be indexed at once and these indexes can(More)
Multiple-object tracking is the ability to attend (keep track of) the positions of multiple target items as they move among other items. The performance of young and older adults (M = 19 and 73 years old, respectively) was compared in two versions of a tracking task in which participants were required to monitor the positions of 1-4 moving targets in a(More)
Paying attention behind the wheel: a framework for studying the role of attention in driving Lana M. Trick a , James T. Enns b , Jessica Mills b & John Vavrik c a Department of Psychology , University of Guelph , Guelph, Ontario, Canada b University of British Columbia , Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada c Insurance Corporation of British Columbia ,(More)
Multiple-object tracking involves simultaneously tracking positions of a number of target-items as they move among distractors. The standard version of the task poses special challenges for children, demanding extended concentration and the ability to distinguish targets from identical-looking distractors, and may thus underestimate children’s tracking(More)
This study investigates the effects of item heterogeneity (differences in color and shape) and moment-to-moment feature change as it relates to the issue of whether subitizing and counting involve different processes. Participants enumerated displays of up to eight items that were either homogeneous or heterogeneous. In situations where the heterogeneous(More)
Inexperience is one of the strongest predictors for collisions, but it remains unclear how novice drivers differ from experienced drivers in terms of safety-related behavioural adaptations such as speed reduction in the presence of reduced visibility. To investigate the influence of driving experience on behavioural compensations to fog, average speed,(More)
Given the proliferation of in-vehicle technologies, techniques must be developed to ensure devices do not produce unacceptable levels of distraction. One approach is to use static time on task (e.g., the 15-second rule). However, this practice makes three critical assumptions: (1) static time on task predicts time on task while driving; (2) time on task(More)