Learn More
With the availability of high frequency financial data, nonparametric estimation of volatility of an asset return process becomes feasible. A major problem is how to estimate the volatility consistently and efficiently, when the observed asset returns contain error or noise, for example, in the form of microstructure noise. The former (consistency) has been(More)
Classical statistics suggest that for inference purposes one should always use as much data as is available. We study how the presence of market microstructure noise in high-frequency financial data can change that result. We derive the optimal sampling frequency when the observations are contaminated by market microstructure effects: empirically, it is(More)
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an(More)
The first generation of genome sequence assemblies and annotations have had a significant impact upon our understanding of the biology of the sequenced species, the phylogenetic relationships among species, the study of populations within and across species, and have informed the biology of humans. As only a few Metazoan genomes are approaching finished(More)
Polyploidy often confers emergent properties, such as the higher fibre productivity and quality of tetraploid cottons than diploid cottons bred for the same environments. Here we show that an abrupt five- to sixfold ploidy increase approximately 60 million years (Myr) ago, and allopolyploidy reuniting divergent Gossypium genomes approximately 1-2 Myr ago,(More)
Owing to the structure of the Gaussian multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channel (BC), associated optimization problems such as capacity region computation and beamforming optimization are typically non-convex, and cannot be solved directly. One feasible approach to these problems is to transform them into their dual multiple access channel(More)
Rod sensitivity was measured with a criterion-free psychophysical method at 10 deg in the horizontal meridian of the nasal field of the left eye on 26 young (mean age, 24.1 yr) and 14 older (mean age 72.6 yr) observers in good ocular health. A 1 deg, 90 msec stimulus was delivered by means of a free-viewing optical system under computer control. Stimulus(More)