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Neurodegenerative diseases can have long preclinical phases and insidious progression patterns, but the mechanisms of disease progression are poorly understood. Because quantitative accounts of neuronal circuitry affected by disease have been lacking, it has remained unclear whether disease progression reflects processes of stochastic loss or temporally(More)
Nuclear receptors regulate gene expression by direct activation of target genes and inhibition of AP-1. Here we report that, unexpectedly, activation by nuclear receptors requires the actions of CREB-binding protein (CBP) and that inhibition of AP-1 activity is the apparent result of competition for limiting amounts of CBP/p300 in cells. Utilizing distinct(More)
Th2 responses are clearly involved in the pathogenesis of atopic disease. Thus, understanding the factors responsible for Th2 sensitization at sites of allergen exposure, such as airway and skin, is crucial for directing therapeutic or preventive strategies. Contrary to other models of Th2 sensitization to proteins, we have reported that Th2 responses(More)
CAP23 is a major cortical cytoskeleton-associated and calmodulin binding protein that is widely and abundantly expressed during development, maintained in selected brain structures in the adult, and reinduced during nerve regeneration. Overexpression of CAP23 in adult neurons of transgenic mice promotes nerve sprouting, but the role of this protein in(More)
The transcription factor Smad2 is released from cytoplasmic retention by TGFbeta receptor-mediated phosphorylation, accumulating in the nucleus where it associates with cofactors to regulate transcription. We uncovered direct interactions of Smad2 with the nucleoporins CAN/Nup214 and Nup153. These interactions mediate constitutive nucleocytoplasmic(More)
MyD88 is a common Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor molecule found to be essential for induction of adaptive Th1 immunity. Conversely, innate control of adaptive Th2 immunity has been shown to occur in a MyD88-independent manner. In this study, we show that MyD88 is an essential innate component in the induction of TLR4-dependent Th2 responses to intranasal(More)
The dose-response of the pleiotropic effects of statins on airway inflammation has not yet been established and may differ from that of their cholesterol-lowering effects. High oral doses of statins may have adverse effects, and it may be possible to overcome the side effects and low clinical efficacy by administering statins via inhalation. In this study,(More)
  • Lan Xu
  • 2006
TGF-beta (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) cytokines employ Smad proteins as the intracellular mediator of signaling. Upon TGF-beta stimulation, the cytoplasmic Smads become phosphorylated and consequently accumulate in the nucleus to regulate target gene expression. The cytoplasm-to-nucleus redistribution of Smads, as well as the ability of Smads to(More)
BACKGROUND Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), a reactive chemical used for commercial polyurethane production, is a well-recognized cause of occupational asthma. The major focus of disease prevention efforts to date has been respiratory tract exposure; however, skin exposure may also be an important route for inducing immune sensitization, which may(More)