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Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are found in the sera of many HIV-1-infected individuals, but the virologic basis of their neutralization remains poorly understood. We used knowledge of HIV-1 envelope structure to develop antigenically resurfaced glycoproteins specific for the structurally conserved site of initial CD4 receptor binding. These(More)
Antibody VRC01 is a human immunoglobulin that neutralizes about 90% of HIV-1 isolates. To understand how such broadly neutralizing antibodies develop, we used x-ray crystallography and 454 pyrosequencing to characterize additional VRC01-like antibodies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Crystal structures revealed a convergent mode of binding for diverse(More)
The role of NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) in cytokine signaling remains controversial. To identify the physiologic functions of NIK, we disrupted the NIK locus by gene targeting. Although NIK-/- mice displayed abnormalities in both lymphoid tissue development and antibody responses, NIK-/- cells manifested normal NF-kappaB DNA binding activity when(More)
As multicore processors are increasingly adopted in industry, it has become a great challenge to accurately bound the worst-case execution time (WCET) for real-time systems running on multicore chips. This is particularly true because of the inter-thread interferences in accessing shared resources on multicores, such as shared L2 caches, which can(More)
Influenza virus entry is mediated by the receptor binding domain (RBD) of its spike, the hemagglutinin (HA). Adaptation of avian viruses to humans is associated with HA specificity for alpha2,6- rather than alpha2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) receptors. Here, we define mutations in influenza A subtype H5N1 (avian) HA that alter its specificity for SA either by(More)
It has been reported that remote ischemic postconditioning was able to protect from a harmful ischemia occurring in brain. In the present study, we investigated the role of p38 MAPK signal pathway in the process of neuroprotection and anti-apoptosis following remote limb ischemic postconditioning on rat focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model. Male(More)
Predicting software engineering trends is a strategically important asset for both developers and managers, but it's also difficult, due to the wide range of factors involved and the complexity of their interactions. This paper reveals some interesting trends and a method for studying other important software engineering trends. This article trades breadth(More)
Intracellular inclusions are a unifying feature of polyglutamine (polyQ) neurodegenerative diseases, yet each polyQ disease displays a unique pattern of neuronal degeneration. This implies that the protein context of expanded polyQ plays an important role in establishing selective neurotoxicity. Here, in studies of the spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 disease(More)
BACKGROUND Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the best-known potentially malignant disorder. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the clinicopathological factors predictive of outcome in a large cohort of patients with OL, and report our experience in the early detection of malignant events. METHODS A total of 320 patients with biopsy-proven OL were(More)