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Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are found in the sera of many HIV-1-infected individuals, but the virologic basis of their neutralization remains poorly understood. We used knowledge of HIV-1 envelope structure to develop antigenically resurfaced glycoproteins specific for the structurally conserved site of initial CD4 receptor binding. These(More)
Antibody VRC01 is a human immunoglobulin that neutralizes about 90% of HIV-1 isolates. To understand how such broadly neutralizing antibodies develop, we used x-ray crystallography and 454 pyrosequencing to characterize additional VRC01-like antibodies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Crystal structures revealed a convergent mode of binding for diverse(More)
Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-related glycoprotein CD1d. The in vivo dynamics of the NKT cell population in response to glycolipid activation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a single administration of the synthetic glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) induces long-term NKT(More)
As multicore processors are increasingly adopted in industry, it has become a great challenge to accurately bound the worst-case execution time (WCET) for real-time systems running on multicore chips. This is particularly true because of the inter-thread interferences in accessing shared resources on multicores, such as shared L2 caches, which can(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to ambient ultrafine particulate matter (UFP) is a well-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, little is known about the effects of air pollution on gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE We sought to assess whether exposure to ambient UFP (diameter < 180 nm) increased free fatty acids and lipid(More)
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells recognize glycolipid Ags, such as the marine sponge-derived glycosphingolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (alphaGalCer) presented by the CD1d protein. In vivo activation of iNKT cells with alphaGalCer results in robust cytokine production, followed by the acquisition of an anergic phenotype. Here we have investigated mechanisms(More)
Influenza virus entry is mediated by the receptor binding domain (RBD) of its spike, the hemagglutinin (HA). Adaptation of avian viruses to humans is associated with HA specificity for alpha2,6- rather than alpha2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) receptors. Here, we define mutations in influenza A subtype H5N1 (avian) HA that alter its specificity for SA either by(More)
It has been reported that remote ischemic postconditioning was able to protect from a harmful ischemia occurring in brain. In the present study, we investigated the role of p38 MAPK signal pathway in the process of neuroprotection and anti-apoptosis following remote limb ischemic postconditioning on rat focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model. Male(More)
Predicting software engineering trends is a strategically important asset for both developers and managers, but it's also difficult, due to the wide range of factors involved and the complexity of their interactions. This paper reveals some interesting trends and a method for studying other important software engineering trends. This article trades breadth(More)
Using HLA class I-viral epitope tetramers to monitor herpes virus-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in humans, we have shown that a significant fraction of responding cells revert from a CD45RO(+) to a CD45RA(+) state after priming. All tetramer-binding CD45RA(+) cells, regardless of epitope specificity, expressed a phenotype LFA-1(high)CCR7(low) that was(More)