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Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are found in the sera of many HIV-1-infected individuals, but the virologic basis of their neutralization remains poorly understood. We used knowledge of HIV-1 envelope structure to develop antigenically resurfaced glycoproteins specific for the structurally conserved site of initial CD4 receptor binding. These(More)
Antibody VRC01 is a human immunoglobulin that neutralizes about 90% of HIV-1 isolates. To understand how such broadly neutralizing antibodies develop, we used x-ray crystallography and 454 pyrosequencing to characterize additional VRC01-like antibodies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Crystal structures revealed a convergent mode of binding for diverse(More)
Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-related glycoprotein CD1d. The in vivo dynamics of the NKT cell population in response to glycolipid activation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a single administration of the synthetic glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) induces long-term NKT(More)
The ability of Yarrowia lipolytica W29 immobilized by calcium alginate to degrade oil and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was examined. The degradation rules of oil and COD by immobilized cells with the cell density of 6.65 x 106 CFU/mL degraded 2000 mg/L oil and 2000 mg/L COD within 50 h at 30 degrees C (pH 7.0, 150 r/min), similarly to those of free cells,(More)
Recently the optimal reinsurance strategy concerning the insurer’s risk attitude and the reinsurance premium principle is an interesting topic. This paper discusses the optimal reinsurance problem with the insurer’s risk measured by distortion risk measure and the reinsurance premium calculated by a general principle including expected premium principle and(More)
Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) protects hearts against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. ROS are paradoxically regarded as a major cause of myocardial I/R injury and a trigger of cardioprotection. In the present study, we investigated whether the ROS generated during early reperfusion contribute to(More)
Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is caused by the proliferation and migration of residual lens epithelium cells (LECs) after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). Rapamcin (RAPA) is known to be a potent immunosuppressive drug with anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of(More)
Cells of the innate immune system interact with pathogens via conserved pattern-recognition receptors, whereas cells of the adaptive immune system recognize pathogens through diverse, antigen-specific receptors that are generated by somatic DNA rearrangement. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a subset of lymphocytes that bridge the innate and(More)
Influenza virus entry is mediated by the receptor binding domain (RBD) of its spike, the hemagglutinin (HA). Adaptation of avian viruses to humans is associated with HA specificity for alpha2,6- rather than alpha2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) receptors. Here, we define mutations in influenza A subtype H5N1 (avian) HA that alter its specificity for SA either by(More)