Learn More
Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are found in the sera of many HIV-1-infected individuals, but the virologic basis of their neutralization remains poorly understood. We used knowledge of HIV-1 envelope structure to develop antigenically resurfaced glycoproteins specific for the structurally conserved site of initial CD4 receptor binding. These(More)
Antibody VRC01 is a human immunoglobulin that neutralizes about 90% of HIV-1 isolates. To understand how such broadly neutralizing antibodies develop, we used x-ray crystallography and 454 pyrosequencing to characterize additional VRC01-like antibodies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Crystal structures revealed a convergent mode of binding for diverse(More)
Streptococcus thermophilus strain ND03 is a Chinese commercial dairy starter used for the manufacture of yogurt. It was isolated from naturally fermented yak milk in Qinghai, China. We present here the complete genome sequence of ND03 and compare it to three other published genomes of Streptococcus thermophilus strains.
Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) protects hearts against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. ROS are paradoxically regarded as a major cause of myocardial I/R injury and a trigger of cardioprotection. In the present study, we investigated whether the ROS generated during early reperfusion contribute to(More)
Recently the optimal reinsurance strategy concerning the insurer's risk attitude and the reinsurance premium principle is an interesting topic. This paper discusses the optimal reinsurance problem with the insurer's risk measured by distortion risk measure and the reinsurance premium calculated by a general principle including expected premium principle and(More)
Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-related glycoprotein CD1d. The in vivo dynamics of the NKT cell population in response to glycolipid activation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a single administration of the synthetic glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) induces long-term NKT(More)
V2/V3 conformational epitope antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 (PG9 and PG16) have been recently described. Since an elicitation of previously known broadly neutralizing antibodies has proven elusive, the induction of antibodies with such specificity is an important goal for HIV-1 vaccine development. A critical question is which immunogens and(More)
HIV-1 infection depends on effective viral entry mediated by the interaction of its envelope (Env) glycoprotein with specific cell surface receptors. Protective antiviral antibodies generated by passive or active immunization must prevent these interactions. Because the HIV-1 Env is highly variable, attention has also focused on blocking the HIV-1 primary(More)
Cells of the innate immune system interact with pathogens via conserved pattern-recognition receptors, whereas cells of the adaptive immune system recognize pathogens through diverse, antigen-specific receptors that are generated by somatic DNA rearrangement. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a subset of lymphocytes that bridge the innate and(More)
Autophagy plays a critical role in multiple aspects of the immune system, including the development and function of T lymphocytes. In mammalian cells, the class III PI3K vacuolar protein sorting (Vps)34 is thought to play a critical role in autophagy. However, recent studies have cast doubt on the role of Vps34 in autophagy, at least in certain cell types.(More)