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Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are found in the sera of many HIV-1-infected individuals, but the virologic basis of their neutralization remains poorly understood. We used knowledge of HIV-1 envelope structure to develop antigenically resurfaced glycoproteins specific for the structurally conserved site of initial CD4 receptor binding. These(More)
Antibody VRC01 is a human immunoglobulin that neutralizes about 90% of HIV-1 isolates. To understand how such broadly neutralizing antibodies develop, we used x-ray crystallography and 454 pyrosequencing to characterize additional VRC01-like antibodies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Crystal structures revealed a convergent mode of binding for diverse(More)
The role of NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) in cytokine signaling remains controversial. To identify the physiologic functions of NIK, we disrupted the NIK locus by gene targeting. Although NIK-/- mice displayed abnormalities in both lymphoid tissue development and antibody responses, NIK-/- cells manifested normal NF-kappaB DNA binding activity when(More)
As multicore processors are increasingly adopted in industry, it has become a great challenge to accurately bound the worst-case execution time (WCET) for real-time systems running on multicore chips. This is particularly true because of the inter-thread interferences in accessing shared resources on multicores, such as shared L2 caches, which can(More)
OBJECTIVE The pathogenetic mechanism of tobacco-related cardiovascular diseases is still not well defined. We examined the potential possibility of an interaction between nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke, and angiotensin II (Ang II), which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases characterized by Ang II type 1(More)
Influenza virus entry is mediated by the receptor binding domain (RBD) of its spike, the hemagglutinin (HA). Adaptation of avian viruses to humans is associated with HA specificity for alpha2,6- rather than alpha2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) receptors. Here, we define mutations in influenza A subtype H5N1 (avian) HA that alter its specificity for SA either by(More)
Src homology 2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is known to regulate signal transduction through the dephosphorylation of tyrosine kinases. In this study, we addressed the role of SHP-1 under tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulation in endothelial cells. The addition of recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (50 ng/mL) or(More)
Improvement of insulin resistance by ACE inhibitors has been suggested; however, this mechanism has not been proved. We postulated that activation of the bradykinin-nitric oxide (NO) system by an ACE inhibitor enhances glucose uptake in peripheral tissues by means of an increase in translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in improvement of(More)
Intracellular inclusions are a unifying feature of polyglutamine (polyQ) neurodegenerative diseases, yet each polyQ disease displays a unique pattern of neuronal degeneration. This implies that the protein context of expanded polyQ plays an important role in establishing selective neurotoxicity. Here, in studies of the spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 disease(More)