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Genome-wide interaction-based association (GWIBA) analysis has the potential to identify novel susceptibility loci. These interaction effects could be missed with the prevailing approaches in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, no convincing loci have been discovered exclusively from GWIBA methods, and the intensive computation involved is a(More)
BACKGROUND Heat-shock transcription factor 4 (HSF4) mutations are associated with autosomal dominant lamellar cataract and Marner cataract. Disruptions of the Hsf4 gene cause lens defects in mice, indicating a requirement for HSF4 in fiber cell differentiation during lens development. However, neither the relationship between HSF4 and crystallins nor the(More)
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect affecting the structure and function of fetal hearts. Despite decades of extensive studies, the genetic mechanism of sporadic CHD remains obscure. Deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) gene, encoding a GTPase-activating protein, is highly expressed in heart and essential for heart development(More)
BACKGROUND Nonsense-mediated decay is a mechanism that degrades mRNAs with a premature termination codon. That some exons have premature termination codons at fixation is paradoxical: why make a transcript if it is only to be destroyed? One model supposes that splicing is inherently noisy and spurious transcripts are common. The evolution of a premature(More)
BACKGROUND More and more experiments have shown that transcription and mRNA processing are not two independent events but are tightly coupled to each other. Both promoter and transcription rate were found to influence alternative splicing. More than half of human genes have alternative promoters, but it is still not clear why there are so many alternative(More)
In female mammals most X-linked genes are subject to X-inactivation. However, in humans some X-linked genes escape silencing, these escapees being candidates for the phenotypic aberrations seen in polyX karyotypes. These escape genes have been reported to be under stronger purifying selection than other X-linked genes. Although it is known that escape from(More)
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a surveillance system that eliminates transcripts with premature termination codons. In this study, we show that mRNAs targeted by NMD are also suppressed at the translational level. The low translational efficiency (TE) is a consequence of multiple features acting in concert, including low translation initiation rate,(More)
BACKGROUND The origin of new genes and their contribution to functional novelty has been the subject of considerable interest. There has been much progress in understanding the mechanisms by which new genes originate. Here we examine a novel way that new gene structures could originate, namely through the evolution of new alternative splicing isoforms after(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing realization that regulation of genes is done partly at the RNA level by sense-antisense binding. Studies typically concentrate on the role of non-coding RNAs in regulating coding RNA. But the majority of transcripts in a cell are likely to be coding. Is it possible that coding RNA might regulate other coding RNA by short(More)
PURPOSE Heat shock transcription factor 4 (HSF4) regulates the expression of several heat shock protein (HSP) genes. HSPs are one of the major components responsible for lens protein organization. Recently, we found that mutations of HSF4 result in hereditary cataract. In this study, we explore the role of HSF4 in the development of age-related cataract. (More)