Lambert W. T. Schuwirth

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World-wide, universities in health sciences have transformed their curriculum to include collaborative learning and facilitate the students' learning process. Interaction has been acknowledged to be the synergistic element in this learning context. However, students spend the majority of their time outside their classroom and interaction does not stop(More)
It has become axiomatic that assessment impacts powerfully on student learning. However, surprisingly little research has been published emanating from authentic higher education settings about the nature and mechanism of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment. Less still emanates from health sciences education settings. This study(More)
It has become axiomatic that assessment impacts powerfully on student learning, but there is a surprising dearth of research on how. This study explored the mechanism of impact of summative assessment on the process of learning of theory in higher education. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with medical students and analyzed qualitatively. The(More)
Traditional psychometric approaches towards assessment tend to focus exclusively on quantitative properties of assessment outcomes. This may limit more meaningful educational approaches towards workplace-based assessment (WBA). Cognition-based models of WBA argue that assessment outcomes are determined by cognitive processes by raters which are very similar(More)
Research on assessment in medical education has strongly focused on individual measurement instruments and their psychometric quality. Without detracting from the value of this research, such an approach is not sufficient to high quality assessment of competence as a whole. A programmatic approach is advocated which presupposes criteria for designing(More)
Context specificity, or the variation in a participant's performance from one case, or situation, to the next, is a recognized problem in medical education. However, studies have not explored the potential reasons for context specificity in experts using the lens of situated cognition and cognitive load theories (CLT). Using these theories, we explored the(More)
To optimally avoid cueing effects and computer scoring problems in computerized examinations a computerized long-menu question (CLM) was developed. This question type was compared to open-ended questions in one treatment group and to multiple-choice questions in another treatment group. Also, scores were compared to self-perceived computer anxiety of the(More)
This study investigates the cueing effect occurring in multiple choice questions. Two parallel tests with matching contents were administered. By means of a computer program, examinees of different training levels and professional expertise were presented the same set of 35 cases (derived from patient problems in general practice) twice. The first time the(More)
Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using theoretical frameworks of social cognition and person(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical reasoning is essential to medical practice, but because it entails internal mental processes, it is difficult to assess. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and think-aloud protocols may improve understanding of clinical reasoning as these methods can more directly assess these processes. The objective of our study was to use a(More)