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Summary Understanding the initial events in the establishment of vaginal human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) entry and infection has been hampered by the lack of appropriate experimental… Expand
Semen contains relatively ill-defined regulatory components that likely aid fertilization, but which could also interfere with defense against infection. Each ejaculate contains trillions of… Expand
ABSTRACT Although implied by other models, proof that Langerhans cells (LCs) in the human vagina participate in dissemination of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been… Expand
Background Many participants in microbicide trials remain uninfected despite ongoing exposure to HIV-1. Determining the emergence and nature of mucosal HIV-specific immune responses in such women is… Expand
Tenofovir gel is being evaluated for vaginal and rectal pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV transmission. Because this is a new prevention strategy, we broadly assessed its effects on the mucosa. In… Expand
ABSTRACT Vaginally applied microbicides hold promise as a strategy to prevent sexual HIV transmission. Several nonspecific microbicides, including the polyanion cellulose sulfate, have been evaluated… Expand