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Dendritic cells (DCs) internalize exogenous Ags and process them for cross-presentation by class I MHC (MHC-I) to CD8+ T cells. This processing can occur by transporter for Ag presentation (TAP)-dependent or TAP-independent mechanisms. We observed that CpG DNA enhanced cross-presentation of Ags by Flt-3L-cultured bone marrow-derived murine DCs by a type I(More)
We recently reported that P2X7 receptor (P2X7R)-induced activation of caspase-1 inflammasomes is accompanied by release of MHC class II (MHC-II) protein into extracellular compartments during brief stimulation of murine macrophages with ATP. Here we demonstrate that MHC-II containing membranes released from macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs) in response(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are released by murine macrophages upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and ATP signaling through the P2X7 receptor. These studies show that infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis strain BCG enhances MHC-II release in synergy with ATP. Shed MHC-II was contained(More)
Peptides from the lumenal portion of invariant chain (Ii) spanning residues 80-106 (class II-associated Ii peptide [CLIP]) are found in association with several mouse and human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II allelic variants in wild-type and presentation-deficient mutant cells. The ready detection of these complexes suggests that such an(More)
Phagosomes contain class II MHC (MHC-II) and form peptide:MHC-II complexes, but the source of phagosomal MHC-II molecules is uncertain. Phagosomes may acquire nascent MHC-II or preexisting, recycling MHC-II that may be internalized from the plasma membrane. Brefeldin A (BFA) was used to deplete nascent MHC-II in murine macrophages to determine the relative(More)
The maturation of invariant chain (Ii):MHC class II complexes into peptide-loaded alpha beta dimers occurs by proteolytic removal of Ii chain and binding of antigenic peptides derived from exogenous and endogenous Ags. A fragment of the Ii chain (class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) remains associated with class II alpha beta and is an(More)
Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection requires CD4 T-cell responses and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) processing of M. tuberculosis antigens (Ags). We have previously demonstrated that macrophages process heat-killed (HK) M. tuberculosis more efficiently than live M. tuberculosis. These observations suggested that live M.(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis resides in phagosomes inside macrophages. In this study, we analyzed the kinetics and location of M. tuberculosis peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) complexes in M. tuberculosis-infected human macrophages. M. tuberculosis peptide-MHC-II complexes were detected with polyclonal autologous M.(More)
Processing of exogenous antigens and microbes involves contributions by multiple different endocytic and phagocytic compartments. During the processing of soluble antigens, different endocytic compartments have been demonstrated to use distinct antigen-processing mechanisms and to process distinct sets of antigenic epitopes. Processing of particulate and(More)