Lakshmi Ramachandra

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) inhibits phagosomal maturation to promote its survival inside macrophages. Control of MTB infection requires CD4 T cell responses and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHC-II) processing of MTB antigens (Ags). To investigate phagosomal processing of MTB Ags, phagosomes containing heat-killed (HK) or live MTB(More)
We recently reported that P2X7 receptor (P2X7R)-induced activation of caspase-1 inflammasomes is accompanied by release of MHC class II (MHC-II) protein into extracellular compartments during brief stimulation of murine macrophages with ATP. Here we demonstrate that MHC-II containing membranes released from macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs) in response(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are released by murine macrophages upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and ATP signaling through the P2X7 receptor. These studies show that infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis strain BCG enhances MHC-II release in synergy with ATP. Shed MHC-II was contained(More)
The majority of deaths (90%) attributed to influenza are in person’s age 65 or older. Little is known about whether defects in innate immune responses in geriatric individuals contribute to their susceptibility to influenza. Our aim was to analyze interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from young and(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis resides in phagosomes inside macrophages. In this study, we analyzed the kinetics and location of M. tuberculosis peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) complexes in M. tuberculosis-infected human macrophages. M. tuberculosis peptide-MHC-II complexes were detected with polyclonal autologous M.(More)
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) signal through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate immune responses, but prolonged exposure to PAMPs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and other pathogens inhibits class II MHC (MHC-II) expression and Ag processing, which may allow MTB to evade CD4(+) T cell immunity. Alternate class I MHC (MHC-I)(More)
Neonates are at increased risk of infections compared to adults. To dissect the mechanisms that contribute to neonatal immune deficiency, we compared MHC-II antigen processing and presentation by monocytes from umbilical cord blood and unrelated adult controls. Antigen-specific, co-stimulation-independent murine T hybridoma cells were used to detect(More)
Peptides from the lumenal portion of invariant chain (Ii) spanning residues 80-106 (class II-associated Ii peptide [CLIP]) are found in association with several mouse and human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II allelic variants in wild-type and presentation-deficient mutant cells. The ready detection of these complexes suggests that such an(More)
Phagosomes contain class II MHC (MHC-II) and form peptide:MHC-II complexes, but the source of phagosomal MHC-II molecules is uncertain. Phagosomes may acquire nascent MHC-II or preexisting, recycling MHC-II that may be internalized from the plasma membrane. Brefeldin A (BFA) was used to deplete nascent MHC-II in murine macrophages to determine the relative(More)