Lakshmi Galam

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Previously, we have demonstrated that the renaturation of heat denatured firefly luciferase is dependent upon the activity of Hsp90 in rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Here, we demonstrate that this assay may identify inhibitors that obstruct the chaperone activity of Hsp90 either by direct binding to its N-terminal or C-terminal nucleotide binding sites or by(More)
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a devastating disease characterized by pulmonary edema. Removal of edema from the air spaces of lung is a critical function of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in ALI. The molecular mechanisms behind resolution of pulmonary edema are incompletely understood. MicroRNA's (miRNA) are crucial gene regulators and are dysregulated(More)
Incomplete clearance of apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release are known to trigger inflammasome activation causing severe inflammation in acute lung injury and various metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, it has been reported that apoptotic cell clearance and ROS-mediated apoptosis critically depend on mitochondrial uncoupling(More)
The hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI) is the influx of proinflammatory cytokines into lung tissue and alveolar permeability that ultimately leads to pulmonary edema. However, the mechanisms involved in inflammatory cytokine production and alveolar permeability are unclear. Recent studies suggest that excessive production of ceramide has clinical relevance(More)
Through Hsp90-dependent firefly luciferase refolding and Hsp90-dependent heme-regulated eIF2α kinase (HRI) activation assays, silybin was identified as a novel Hsp90 inhibitor. Subsequently, a library of silybin analogues was designed, synthesized and evaluated. Initial SAR studies identified the essential, non-essential and detrimental functionalities on(More)
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes involved in the processing of IL-1β through Caspase-1 cleavage. NLRP3 is the most widely studied inflammasome, which has been shown to respond to a large number of both endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Although studies have begun to define basic pathways for the activation of inflammasome and have been(More)
Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) is a member of the suppressor of cytokine signaling family of proteins and an inhibitor of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling. SOCS-1 has been shown to protect cells from cellular damage and apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and interferon gamma (IL-γ). However, it is not(More)
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a member of the MAPK kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, is activated by various stimuli, which include oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calcium influx, DNA damage-inducing agents and receptor-mediated signaling through tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR). Inspiration of a high(More)
Hsp90 has become the target of intensive investigation, as inhibition of its function has the ability to simultaneously incapacitate proteins that function in pathways that represent the six hallmarks of cancer. While a number of Hsp90 inhibitors have made it into clinical trials, a number of short-comings have been noted, such that the search continues for(More)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a manifestation of metabolic syndrome, a group of conditions including hypertension, high plasma glucose, excess body fat around waist or abnormal cholesterol levels which will work together to increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke (Kim and Younossi, 2008). Although 20% of NAFLD cases progress(More)