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The gene unc-76 (unc, uncoordinated) is necessary for normal axonal bundling and elongation within axon bundles in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The UNC-76 protein and two human homologs identified as expressed sequence tags are not similar to previously characterized proteins and thus represent a new protein family. At least one of these human(More)
Using directed in vitro protein evolution, we generated proteins that bound and antagonized the function of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Binders to human VEGFR2 (KDR) with 10-200 nM affinities were selected by using mRNA display from a library (10(13) variants) based on the tenth human fibronectin type III domain (10Fn3) scaffold.(More)
The engulfment of apoptotic cells is required for normal metazoan development and tissue remodeling. In Caenorhabditis elegans, two parallel and partially redundant conserved pathways act in cell-corpse engulfment. One pathway includes the adaptor protein CED-2 CrkII and the small GTPase CED-10 Rac, and acts to rearrange the cytoskeleton of the engulfing(More)
Fibroblasts, when plated on the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN), rapidly spread and form an organized actin cytoskeleton. This process is known to involve both the central alpha5beta1 integrin-binding and the C-terminal heparin-binding regions of FN. We found that within the heparin-binding region, the information necessary for inducing(More)
Examination of 1269 unique naive chicken V(H) sequences showed that the majority of positions in the framework (FW) regions were maintained as germline, with high mutation rates observed in the CDRs. Many FW mutations could be clearly related to the modulation of CDR structure or the V(H)-V(L) interface. CDRs 1 and 2 of the V(H) exhibited frequent mutation(More)
Using phage display, we generated a panel of optimized neutralizing antibodies against the human and mouse receptors for interleukin 21 (IL-21), a cytokine that is implicated in the pathogenesis of many types of autoimmune disease. Two antibodies, Ab-01 and Ab-02, which differed by only four amino acids in V(L) CDR3, showed potent inhibition of human and(More)
In the ten years since the first fibronectin type III (FN3) domain library was published, FN3 has continued to show promise as a scaffold for the generation of stable protein domains that bind to targets with high affinity. A variety of display systems, library designs and affinity maturation strategies have been used to generate FN3 domains with nanomolar(More)
We have generated large libraries of single-chain Fv antibody fragments (>10(10) transformants) containing unbiased amino acid diversity that is restricted to the central combining site of the stable, well-expressed DP47 and DPK22 germline V-genes. Library WySH2A was constructed to examine the potential for synthetic complementarity-determining region(More)
High-affinity, highly specific binding proteins are a key class of molecules used in the development of new affinity chromatography methods. Traditionally, antibody-based methods have relied on the use of immunoglobulins purified from immune animal sera, from egg yolks, or from murine monoclonal hybridoma supernatants. To accelerate and refine the reagent(More)
Whereas many molecules that promote cell and axonal growth cone migrations have been identified, few are known to inhibit these processes. In genetic screens designed to identify molecules that negatively regulate such migrations, we identified CRML-1, the C. elegans homolog of CARMIL. Although mammalian CARMIL acts to promote the migration of glioblastoma(More)