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OBJECTIVE Angiotensin II (AngII) disrupts the regulation of the cerebral circulation through superoxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by a nox2-containing NADPH oxidase. We tested the hypothesis that AngII-derived superoxide reacts with nitric oxide (NO) to form peroxynitrite, which, in turn, contributes to the vascular dysfunction. METHODS(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid synthesis, has been implicated in the neurotoxicity resulting from hypoxia-ischemia, and its inhibition has therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke. However, COX-2 inhibitors increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. We therefore sought to identify the downstream effectors of COX-2(More)
Alterations in cerebrovascular regulation related to vascular oxidative stress have been implicated in the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their role in the amyloid deposition and cognitive impairment associated with AD remains unclear. We used mice overexpressing the Swedish mutation of the amyloid precursor protein (Tg2576) as a model of AD to(More)
Aging, Alzheimer disease, and hypertension, major determinants of cognitive dysfunction, are associated with profound alterations in the structure and function of cerebral blood vessels. These vascular alterations may impair the delivery of energy substrates and nutrients to the active brain, and impede the clearance of potentially toxic metabolic(More)
Alzheimer's dementia is a devastating and incurable disease afflicting over 35 million people worldwide. Amyloid-β (Aβ), a key pathogenic factor in this disease, has potent cerebrovascular effects that contribute to brain dysfunction underlying dementia by limiting the delivery of oxygen and glucose to the working brain. However, the downstream pathways(More)
Aging is associated with cerebrovascular dysregulation, which may underlie the increased susceptibility to ischemic stroke and vascular cognitive impairment occurring in the elder individuals. Although it has long been known that oxidative stress is responsible for the cerebrovascular dysfunction, the enzymatic system(s) generating the reactive oxygen(More)
OBJECTIVE Angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts deleterious effect on the cerebral circulation through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the enzymatic source of the ROS has not been defined. We tested the hypothesis that Ang II impairs endothelium-dependent responses in the cerebral microcirculation through ROS generated in cerebrovascular(More)
Hypertension alters cerebrovascular regulation and increases the brain's susceptibility to stroke and dementia. We investigated the temporal relationships between the arterial pressure (AP) elevation induced by "slow pressor" angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion, which recapitulates key features of human hypertension, and the resulting cerebrovascular(More)
We investigated the role of vascular oxidative stress in the mechanisms of the impairment in cerebrovascular regulation produced by the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). In particular, we sought to provide evidence of vascular oxidative stress in mice overexpressing the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and to determine whether the Abeta-induced attenuation in(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that cerebrovascular dysfunction plays a pathogenic role in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Amyloid-β (Aβ), a peptide central to the pathogenesis of AD, has profound vascular effects mediated, for the most part, by reactive oxygen species produced by the enzyme NADPH oxidase. The mechanisms linking Aβ to NADPH oxidase-dependent(More)