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OBJECTIVE Angiotensin II (AngII) disrupts the regulation of the cerebral circulation through superoxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by a nox2-containing NADPH oxidase. We tested the hypothesis that AngII-derived superoxide reacts with nitric oxide (NO) to form peroxynitrite, which, in turn, contributes to the vascular dysfunction. METHODS(More)
Alterations in cerebrovascular regulation related to vascular oxidative stress have been implicated in the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their role in the amyloid deposition and cognitive impairment associated with AD remains unclear. We used mice overexpressing the Swedish mutation of the amyloid precursor protein (Tg2576) as a model of AD to(More)
Hypertension alters cerebrovascular regulation and increases the brain's susceptibility to stroke and dementia. We investigated the temporal relationships between the arterial pressure (AP) elevation induced by "slow pressor" angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion, which recapitulates key features of human hypertension, and the resulting cerebrovascular(More)
Overproduction of the amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms of its pathogenic effects have not been defined. Patients with AD have cerebrovascular alterations attributable to the deleterious effects of Abeta on cerebral blood vessels. We report here that NADPH oxidase, the major(More)
OBJECTIVE Angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts deleterious effect on the cerebral circulation through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the enzymatic source of the ROS has not been defined. We tested the hypothesis that Ang II impairs endothelium-dependent responses in the cerebral microcirculation through ROS generated in cerebrovascular(More)
Aging, Alzheimer disease, and hypertension, major determinants of cognitive dysfunction, are associated with profound alterations in the structure and function of cerebral blood vessels. These vascular alterations may impair the delivery of energy substrates and nutrients to the active brain, and impede the clearance of potentially toxic metabolic(More)
The class B scavenger receptor CD36 is involved in the cytotoxicity associated with inflammation, but its role in the inflammatory reaction that accompanies cerebral ischemia has not been examined. In this study, we investigated whether CD36 contributes to the brain damage produced by cerebral ischemia. The middle cerebral artery was transiently occluded in(More)
Cerebral ischemic preconditioning or tolerance is a powerful neuroprotective phenomenon by which a sublethal injurious stimulus renders the brain resistant to a subsequent damaging ischemic insult. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a preconditioning stimulus in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to examine whether improvements in(More)
Progressive deposition of amyloid beta-protein (A beta) in brain parenchyma and blood vessels is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer disease. Recent evidence suggests that addition of solubilized synthetic A beta to medium may produce toxic or trophic effects on cultured hippocampal neurons. Because soluble A beta may not accumulate in significant(More)
The increase in blood flow evoked by synaptic activity is essential for normal brain function and underlies functional brain imaging signals. Nitric oxide, a vasodilator released by NMDA receptor activation, is critical for the flow increase, but the factors linking NMDA receptor activity to nitric oxide-dependent hyperemia are poorly understood. Here, we(More)