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OBJECTIVE Angiotensin II (AngII) disrupts the regulation of the cerebral circulation through superoxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by a nox2-containing NADPH oxidase. We tested the hypothesis that AngII-derived superoxide reacts with nitric oxide (NO) to form peroxynitrite, which, in turn, contributes to the vascular dysfunction. METHODS(More)
Alterations in cerebrovascular regulation related to vascular oxidative stress have been implicated in the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their role in the amyloid deposition and cognitive impairment associated with AD remains unclear. We used mice overexpressing the Swedish mutation of the amyloid precursor protein (Tg2576) as a model of AD to(More)
Overproduction of the amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms of its pathogenic effects have not been defined. Patients with AD have cerebrovascular alterations attributable to the deleterious effects of Abeta on cerebral blood vessels. We report here that NADPH oxidase, the major(More)
The class B scavenger receptor CD36 is involved in the cytotoxicity associated with inflammation, but its role in the inflammatory reaction that accompanies cerebral ischemia has not been examined. In this study, we investigated whether CD36 contributes to the brain damage produced by cerebral ischemia. The middle cerebral artery was transiently occluded in(More)
Progressive deposition of amyloid beta-protein (A beta) in brain parenchyma and blood vessels is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer disease. Recent evidence suggests that addition of solubilized synthetic A beta to medium may produce toxic or trophic effects on cultured hippocampal neurons. Because soluble A beta may not accumulate in significant(More)
Cerebral ischemic preconditioning or tolerance is a powerful neuroprotective phenomenon by which a sublethal injurious stimulus renders the brain resistant to a subsequent damaging ischemic insult. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a preconditioning stimulus in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to examine whether improvements in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Prohibitin is a multi-functional protein involved in numerous cellular activities. Prohibitin overexpression protects neurons from injury in vitro, but it is unclear whether prohibitin can protect selectively vulnerable hippocampal CA1 neurons in a clinically relevant injury model in vivo and, if so, whether the salvaged neurons(More)
The increase in blood flow evoked by synaptic activity is essential for normal brain function and underlies functional brain imaging signals. Nitric oxide, a vasodilator released by NMDA receptor activation, is critical for the flow increase, but the factors linking NMDA receptor activity to nitric oxide-dependent hyperemia are poorly understood. Here, we(More)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebrovascular diseases share common vascular risk factors that have disastrous effects on cerebrovascular regulation. Endothelial cells, lining inner walls of cerebral blood vessels, form a dynamic interface between the blood and the brain and are critical for the maintenance of neurovascular homeostasis. Accordingly, injury(More)
Hypertension (HTN) doubles the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the mechanisms remain unclear. Amyloid-β (Aβ), a key pathogenic factor in AD, induces cerebrovascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that HTN acts in concert with Aβ to amplify its deleterious cerebrovascular effects and to increase Aβ production. Infusion of angiotensin II (ANGII;(More)