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Multipotential naive CD4(+) T cells differentiate into distinct lineages including T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17, and inducible T regulatory (iTreg) cells. The remarkable diversity of CD4(+) T cells begs the question whether the observed changes reflect terminal differentiation with heritable epigenetic modifications or plasticity in T cell responses. We(More)
PURPOSE Based on the pivotal role of Ras-Raf-MAP-ERK signaling and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we conducted a phase II clinical trial of sorafenib targeting RAF and VEGF receptor kinases in PTC. PATIENTS AND METHODS The primary end point was the objective response rate. Secondary end points included(More)
CD4(+) helper T cells can differentiate into several possible fates including: Th1, Th2, T regulatory, and Th17 cells. Although, cytokine production by non-T cells is an important factor in helper T cell differentiation, a characteristic feature of both Th1 and Th2 lineages is their ability to secrete cytokines that promote their respective differentiation.(More)
Targeted therapy with imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) prompted a new treatment paradigm. Unlike CML, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lacks an aberrant fusion protein kinase but instead displays increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. To date, PI3K inhibitor development has been limited because of the requirement of this(More)
Antifungal agents exert their activity through a variety of mechanisms, some of which are poorly understood. We examined changes in the gene expression profile of Candida albicans following exposure to representatives of the four currently available classes of antifungal agents used in the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Ketoconazole exposure(More)
CD4(+) T-helper cells that selectively produce interleukin (IL)-17 (T(H)17), are critical for host defence and autoimmunity. Although crucial for T(H)17 cells in vivo, IL-23 has been thought to be incapable of driving initial differentiation. Rather, IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 have been proposed to be the factors responsible for initiating(More)
UNLABELLED Chronic hepatitis B and its life-threatening sequelae are highly prevalent in China. There is a need for effective new therapies to suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and ameliorate liver disease. In this study, we compared the efficacy of telbivudine, a nucleoside analogue, with lamivudine in Chinese patients. In this phase III,(More)
MOTIVATION A major challenge in the interpretation of high-throughput genomic data is understanding the functional associations between genes. Previously, several approaches have been described to extract gene relationships from various biological databases using term-matching methods. However, more flexible automated methods are needed to identify(More)
Distinct CD4(+) T cell subsets are critical for host defense and immunoregulation. Although these subsets can act as terminally differentiated lineages, they have been increasingly noted to demonstrated plasticity. MicroRNAs are factors that control T cell stability and plasticity. Here we report that naturally occurring regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells)(More)
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) and STAT6 are key factors in the specification of helper T cells; however, their direct roles in driving differentiation are not well understood. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and massive parallel sequencing, we quantitated the full complement of STAT-bound genes, concurrently assessing global(More)