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One of the major limitations in the use of genetically modified mice for studying cognitive functions is the lack of regional and temporal control of gene function. To overcome these limitations, a forebrain-specific promoter was combined with the tetracycline transactivator system to achieve both regional and temporal control of transgene expression.(More)
Axonal cytoskeletal and cytosolic proteins are synthesized in the neuronal cell body and transported along axons by slow axonal transport, but attempts to observe this movement directly in living cells have yielded conflicting results. Here we report the direct observation of the axonal transport of neurofilament protein tagged with green fluorescent(More)
Theories of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia have implicated the hippocampus, but controversy remains regarding hippocampal abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. In vivo studies of hippocampal anatomy using high resolution magnetic resonance scanning and manual methods for volumetric measurement have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps because(More)
Structural deformity of the hippocampus is characteristic of individuals with very mild and mild forms of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar deformity of the hippocampus can predict the onset of dementia in nondemented elders. Using high dimensional diffeomorphic transformations of a(More)
Leptin is the primary signal through which the hypothalamus senses nutritional state and modulates food intake and energy balance. Leptin reduces food intake by upregulating anorexigenic (appetite-reducing) neuropeptides, such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and downregulating orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) factors, primarily neuropeptide Y.(More)
Recent MRI studies in multiple sclerosis have highlighted the potential importance of spinal cord atrophy (implicating axonal loss) in the development of disability. However, the techniques applied in these initial studies have poor reproducibility which limits their application in the serial monitoring of patients. The aim of this study was to develop a(More)
Most people hold beliefs about personality characteristics typical of members of their own and others' cultures. These perceptions of national character may be generalizations from personal experience, stereotypes with a "kernel of truth," or inaccurate stereotypes. We obtained national character ratings of 3989 people from 49 cultures and compared them(More)
In five patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, the authors verified the precision and reproducibility of hippocampal segmentations with deformation-based magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The overall percentage overlap between automated segmentations was 92.8% (SD, 3.5%), between manual segmentations was 73.1% (SD, 9.5%), and between automated and manual(More)
Estimation of canopy biophysical variables from remote sensing data was investigated using radiative transfer model inversion. Measurement and model uncertainties make the inverse problem ill posed, inducing difficulties and inaccuracies in the search for the solution. This study focuses on the use of prior information to reduce the uncertainties associated(More)
Sections of human skin were processed according to the indirect immunofluorescence technique with a rabbit antiserum against human protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Immunoreactivity was detected in intraepidermal and dermal nerve fibres and cells. The intraepidermal nerves were varicose or smooth with different diameters, running as single processes or(More)