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This study investigated the effect of two forms of intensive speech treatment, (a) respiration (R) and (b) voice and respiration (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment [LSVT]), on the speech and voice deficits associated with idiopathic Parkinson disease. Forty-five subjects with Idiopathic Parkinson disease completed extensive pretreatment neurological,(More)
OBJECTIVE Poor decision-making is a hallmark of addiction, whether to substances or activities. Performance on a widely used test of decision-making, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), can discriminate controls from persons with ventral medial frontal lesions, substance-dependence, and pathological gambling. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies indicate(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic exposure to drugs of addiction induces cellular adaptations in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and associated limbic-prefrontal pathways that might underlie abuse-related behavior. A propensity to make risky decisions in spite of substantial negative consequences might be mediated by medial OFC dysfunction in substance-dependent individuals(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess long term (24 months) effects of the Lee Silverman voice treatment (LSVT), a method designed to improve vocal function in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS Thirty three patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were stratified and randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received the LSVT, which emphasises high(More)
OBJECTIVE Adolescent patients' conduct disorder and substance use disorder symptoms are "risky behaviors" with unpredictable rewards and punishments. The authors asked whether such youths also take excessive risks in new situations without prior learning, peer pressure, or intoxication. METHOD Subjects were 20 adolescent patients in a program treating(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with drug addictions report increased willingness to approach rewards. Approach behaviors are thought to involve executive control processes and are more strongly represented in the left compared to right prefrontal cortex. A direct link between approach tendencies and left hemisphere activity has not been shown in the resting brain.(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term (12 months) effects of two forms of speech treatment on the speech and voice deficits that occur in Parkinson's disease. Thirty-five patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were assigned to one of two speech treatment groups: voice and respiration (The Lee Silverman Voice Treatment [LSVT]) or(More)
Clinical examination of memory functions often includes the administration of simple free recall tasks, such as the recall of several words following a few minutes. Little is known, however, about the normative parameters or psychometric properties of such procedures, and such techniques have rarely been compared with more comprehensive, well-standardized(More)
The four neurological patient groups and the normals from the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) standardization sample were used to examine the discriminability of the WCST's indices. Results reveal consistent differentiation of normals from the patient groups on all WCST variables, with classification rates averaging 71% accuracy. However, patient groups(More)
This study investigated the efficacy of oral melatonin in alleviating jet lag in flight crew after a series of international flights. The optimal time for taking melatonin in this group was also investigated. In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 52 international cabin crew were randomly assigned to three groups; early melatonin (5 mg started 3 days(More)