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Sleep disruption and other circadian rhythm disturbances are frequently seen in dementia patients. In this study, we examined the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the putative site of the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker, to determine the nature and degree of pathologic changes caused by severe dementia. Neuropathologic examination indicated that among 30(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors tested the hypothesis that evening bright light pulses would improve sleep-wake patterns and reduce agitation in patients with Alzheimer's disease who have severe sundowning (a syndrome of recurring confusion and increased agitation in the late afternoon or early evening) and sleep disorders. METHOD Ten inpatients with Alzheimer's(More)
BACKGROUND Caregiver exhaustion is a frequent consequence of sleep disturbance and rest-activity rhythm disruption that occurs in dementia. This exhaustion is the causal factor most frequently cited by caregivers in making the decision to institutionalize patients with dementia. Recent studies have implicated dysfunction of the circadian pacemaker in the(More)
Gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b were measured in nine brain regions of five patients, clinically and neuropathologically diagnosed as having dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), and of three control patients. Analysis of variance revealed that mean concentrations of all gangliosides analyzed were significantly lower in DAT than in control brains.(More)
Mean levels of the two hydrolases angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the dopamine metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), and total protein concentration were examined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from a group of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type, a group of(More)
Sleep-wake cycle disturbances suggest that circadian rhythms may be disrupted in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we examined the circadian rhythms of core-body temperature and locomotor activity in 28 patients with probable AD and 10 healthy controls. AD patients had higher percent nocturnal activity than controls, corresponding to(More)
OBJECTIVES It has been suggested in some studies that head injury is a risk factor for AD, and that this risk is heightened among carriers of the APOE-epsilon4 allele. We examined the effects of head injury and APOE genotype on AD risk in a large family study. SUBJECTS A total of 2,233 probands who met criteria for probable or definite AD and their 14,668(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to determine changes of circadian rhythms induced by Alzheimer's disease and to explore relationships among rhythm disturbances, sundowning, and sleep disturbances in patients with Alzheimer's disease. "Sundowning" is the occurrence or exacerbation of behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in the afternoon and(More)
The effects of age and prenatal protein malnutrition (6% casein diet) on the concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites and precursors in the hippocampal formation, striatum, brain stem and cerebral cortex were investigated in 1-, 15-, 30-, 45-, 90- and 220-day-old rats. Concentrations of all neurotransmitters, i.e. dopamine,(More)
Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase enzymatic activities were measured in 33 cytoarchitectonic subregions of the cerebral cortex in two rhesus monkeys. As expected, the hippocampus and amygdala were rich in these enzymes. In addition, the paralimbic (mesocortical) regions of the brain (e.g., parahippocampal, insular, caudal orbitofrontal, and(More)