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The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of at least 20 proteolytic enzymes that play an essential role in tissue remodeling. MMP1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP9 (gelatinase B) and MMP12 (macrophage elastase) are thought to be important in the development of emphysema. A number of naturally occurring polymorphisms of human MMP gene promoters(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that the cytokine network is central to the immunopathology of inflammatory airway diseases. The interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent that binds to the IL-1 receptor but does not possess agonist activity. Each of the genes of the IL-1 locus on chromosome(More)
BACKGROUND Non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (NSBH) is a known predictor of accelerated rate of decline in lung function in smokers. Polymorphisms of the beta(2) adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) have previously been associated with NSBH and bronchodilator response (BDR) in asthmatics. Based on these associations, we hypothesised that ADRB2 polymorphisms(More)
The number of immunocompromised patients is steadily increasing due to HIV infection, solid organ and stem cell transplantation, intensified chemotherapy, immunosuppression for autoimmune diseases, and a marked increase in the use of monoclonal antibodies. Prevention strategies for pulmonary infections and diagnostic methods have evolved and patient outcome(More)
In the year 2000, the Human Genome Project Consortium presented the first complete draft of the human genome together with Celera Genetics. Since then, the so-called "post-genome era" has started. Microarrays are capable of profiling gene expression patterns of tens of thousands of genes in a single experiment and thus allow a systematic analysis of DNA and(More)
The search for the genetic basis of asthma and other allergic diseases has identified many candidate genes. Some of these genes have been investigated to determine whether they influence a person's response to asthma medication. Several studies have shown that polymorphisms in the beta 2 -adrenergic receptor gene influence responsiveness to beta-agonists.(More)
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a useful tool in the diagnosis of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients. We aimed to compare the spectrum of infectious pulmonary complications diagnosed using BAL in a large consecutive cohort of immunocompromised patients. The diagnostic yield of 1066 BAL specimens was analyzed in 4 different groups of(More)
The aim of the present study was to explore the diagnostic usefulness of the multitarget fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test, LAVysion (Vysis, Downers Grove, IL), for the detection of lung cancer cells in cytologic specimens. Specimens from bronchial washings, bronchial brushings, and transbronchial fine-needle aspirates (TBNAs) from 100 patients(More)
BACKGROUND Flexible bronchoscopy is a procedure commonly performed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield and the safety of routine bronchoscopy techniques including transbronchial needle aspiration and transbronchial biopsy at a university hospital in Switzerland. METHODS 616 consecutive(More)
The idea that an abnormality in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor contributes to asthma has been a long-standing hypothesis. Since the discovery of functionally relevant polymorphisms in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene, there has been intensive research on their impact on asthma and related phenotypes, particularly the responsiveness to bronchodilators.(More)