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The authors describe the design and implementation of a large multiethnic cohort established to study diet and cancer in the United States. They detail the source of the subjects, sample size, questionnaire development, pilot work, and approaches to future analyses. The cohort consists of 215,251 adult men and women (age 45-75 years at baseline) living in(More)
Endometrial cancer is associated with increased weight and body size, diabetes, and other conditions that may result from an excess in calories or lack of physical activity. Although a few studies have explored the effect of dietary constituents on the risk of endometrial cancer, the nature of the joint association of these constituents and obesity, energy(More)
The dramatic shift in the pathological presentation of lung cancer [the proportional decrease in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and increase in adenocarcinoma (AC)] observed in the United States after the 1950s may have taken place as the result of the reduction in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the increase in N-nitrosamines in inhaled smoke(More)
The performance of the dietary questionnaire used in a multiethnic cohort study in Hawaii and Los Angeles was assessed in a calibration substudy that compared diet reported from the questionnaire with three 24-hour dietary recalls. For the calibration substudy, subjects from each of eight subgroups defined by sex and ethnic group (African-American,(More)
The authors conducted a case-control study among the multi-ethnic population of Hawaii to examine the role of dietary soy, fiber, and related foods and nutrients on the risk of endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer cases (n = 332) diagnosed between 1985 and 1993 were identified from the five main ethnic groups in the state (Japanese, Caucasian, Native(More)
The evidence for a protective effect of vegetables, fruits, and legumes against prostate cancer is weak and inconsistent. We examined the relationship of these food groups and their constituent foods to prostate cancer risk in a multicenter case-control study of African-American, white, Japanese, and Chinese men. Cases (n = 1619) with histologically(More)
Whereas case-control studies have been very consistent in suggesting a positive association between intake of dietary fat, especially animal fat, and prostate cancer, the results from past cohort studies have been mostly inconclusive. In this study, we evaluated consumption of high-fat animal products, raw vegetables, and fresh fruits, as well as obesity,(More)
BACKGROUND Lack of circumcision has been identified as a risk factor for male genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, although this association has not been consistently supported. METHODS Specimens for HPV testing were collected from a cohort of 379 (primarily heterosexual) adult males. HPV prevalence in the glans penis and coronal sulcus, penile(More)
The NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase gene, NQO1, often carries a C-->T transition at bp 609, which has been associated with a reduced enzymatic activity and which may result in altered metabolic activation of tobacco smoke procarcinogens. We tested the association of this polymorphism with lung cancer risk in a population-based case-control study of 327 cases(More)
Steroid hormones, such as estrogens, appear to be associated with ovarian carcinogenesis, but the precise biological mechanisms are unclear. Polymorphisms in genes that regulate the concentration of estrogens and their metabolites may contribute directly to the individual variation in ovarian cancer risk through a mechanism involving oxidative stress or(More)