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The ROSA beta geo26 (ROSA26) mouse strain was produced by random retroviral gene trapping in embryonic stem cells. Staining of ROSA26 tissues and fluorescence-activated cell sorter-Gal analysis of hematopoietic cells demonstrates ubiquitous expression of the proviral beta geo reporter gene, and bone marrow transfer experiments illustrate the general utility(More)
The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) has been implicated in the regulation of transcription of a variety of genes and has been shown to be essential for the expression of genes controlled by the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV LTR). We show here that intracellular thiol levels play a key role in regulating this(More)
Proliferation and immunologic function of T lymphocytes are initiated by signals from the antigen receptor that are inhibited by the immunosuppressant FK506 but not by its structural analog, rapamycin. On the other hand, interleukin 2 (IL-2)-induced signals are blocked by rapamycin but not by FK506. Remarkably, these two drugs inhibit each other's actions,(More)
Mutations in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene have been linked to severe early B cell developmental blocks in human X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and to milder B cell activation deficiencies in murine X-linked immune deficiency (Xid). To elucidate unequivocally potential Btk functions in mice, we generated mutations in embryonic stem cells,(More)
Multigenic programs controlling susceptibility to apoptosis in response to ionizing radiation have not yet been defined. Here, using DNA microarrays, we show gene expression patterns in an apoptosis-sensitive and apoptosis-resistant murine B cell lymphoma model system both before and after irradiation. From the 11,000 genes interrogated by the arrays, two(More)
Glutathione (GSH), a cysteine-containing tripeptide, is essential for the viability and function of virtually all cells. In vitro studies showing that low GSH levels both promote HIV expression and impair T cell function suggested a link between GSH depletion and HIV disease progression. Clinical studies presented here directly demonstrate that low GSH(More)