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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoringExpand
Termination of autophagy and reformation of lysosomes regulated by mTOR
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are catabolized. During starvation, the protein TOR (target of rapamycin), a nutrient-responsive kinase,Expand
Cytosolic FoxO1 is essential for the induction of autophagy and tumour suppressor activity
Autophagy is characterized by the sequestration of bulk cytoplasm, including damaged proteins and organelles, and delivery of the cargo to lysosomes for degradation. Although the autophagic pathwayExpand
Aberrant CpG-island methylation has non-random and tumour-type–specific patterns
CpG islands frequently contain gene promoters or exons and are usually unmethylated in normal cells. Methylation of CpG islands is associated with delayed replication, condensed chromatin andExpand
C. elegans Screen Identifies Autophagy Genes Specific to Multicellular Organisms
The molecular understanding of autophagy has originated almost exclusively from yeast genetic studies. Little is known about essential autophagy components specific to higher eukaryotes. Here weExpand
The WD40 repeat PtdIns(3)P-binding protein EPG-6 regulates progression of omegasomes to autophagosomes.
PtdIns(3)P plays critical roles in the autophagy pathway. However, little is known about how PtdIns(3)P effectors act with autophagy proteins in autophagosome formation. Here we identified anExpand
Clathrin and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate regulate autophagic lysosome reformation
Autophagy is a lysosome-based degradation pathway. During autophagy, lysosomes fuse with autophagosomes to form autolysosomes. Following starvation-induced autophagy, nascent lysosomes are formedExpand
Autophagy pathway: Cellular and molecular mechanisms
ABSTRACT Macroautophagy/autophagy is an essential, conserved self-eating process that cells perform to allow degradation of intracellular components, including soluble proteins, aggregated proteins,Expand
A Paradigm for Virus–Host Coevolution: Sequential Counter-Adaptations between Endogenous and Exogenous Retroviruses
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of the host germline transmitted vertically from generation to generation. It is hypothesized that some ERVs are used byExpand
Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation
BackgroundDespite the small number of ursid species, bear phylogeny has long been a focus of study due to their conservation value, as all bear genera have been classified as endangered at either theExpand
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