A spring term is added into Newton’s law of gravitation. The spring k of the earth is found to be 1.21 × 10-8/sec2. The PPN gamma is a dependence of distance r from the sun. The expanding universe is… Expand

The general static spherical potential in the form of 2 2 2 1 = kr r B r A + + φ is proposed. The first term is the usual Newton’s law. The second term refers to the negative field energy of the… Expand

Abstract The spring constant of the earth is found to be 1.1 × 10 −8 /s 2 which is based on the famous Pound and Rebka gravitational red-shift experimental data. The spring force, or so-called the… Expand

The cosmological constant is necessary to be retained in Einstein’s field equations with value depending on the mass of the source. An overview of the spring theory in astrophysics and cosmology is… Expand

Upon revisiting the famous Pound-Rebka-Snider experiments on the gravitational red-shift , the fifth and even the sixth force in nature are in fact the stretching and compression force of the spring… Expand