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Role of Tet proteins in 5mC to 5hmC conversion, ES-cell self-renewal and inner cell mass specification
TLDR
It is demonstrated that all three mouse Tet proteins (Tet1, Tet2 and Tet3) can also catalyse a similar reaction, uncover the enzymatic activity of the Tet proteins, and demonstrate a role for Tet1 in ES cell maintenance and inner cell mass cell specification.
Oxidative damage to methyl-CpG sequences inhibits the binding of the methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2).
TLDR
Oxidative damage to DNA could result in heritable, epigenetic changes in chromatin organization, and oxidation of either a single guanine to 8-oxoG or of a single 5mC to HmC, significantly inhibits binding of the MBD to the oligonucleotide duplex, reducing the binding affinity.
Endogenous cytosine damage products alter the site selectivity of human DNA maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1.
TLDR
It is proposed that reduced DNMT1 selectivity resulting from DNA damage could cause heritable changes in cytosine methylation patterns, resulting in human tumor formation, and may provide a mechanistic link for the associations documented between inflammation and cancer.
Dynamics of mismatched base pairs in DNA.
TLDR
The ability to discern differences in the strength of base-pairing interactions at a specific site in DNA by observing their effect on the dynamics of base motion is a novel aspect of the present study.
Comparison between DNA melting thermodynamics and DNA polymerase fidelity.
TLDR
The idea that a binding cleft that snugly fits correct base pairs and excludes water at the active site may amplify base-pair free energy differences by reducing entropy differences and increasing enthalpy differences sufficiently to account for nucleotide insertion and extension fidelity is explored.
Reverse chemical mutagenesis: identification of the mutagenic lesions resulting from reactive oxygen species-mediated damage to DNA.
TLDR
One of the mutagenic species isolated was identified as 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine, which is incorporated efficiently into DNA and causes C-->T transitions in Escherichia coli at a frequency of 2.5%, which is more Mutagenic than any previously identified oxidative DNA lesion.
Mechanism of human methyl-directed DNA methyltransferase and the fidelity of cytosine methylation.
TLDR
The data suggest that the able of the human methyltransferase to preserve genetic information when copying a methylation pattern is comparable to the ability of a mammalian DNA polymerase to preserved genetic informationwhen copying a DNA sequence.
Comparison of nucleotide interactions in water, proteins, and vacuum: model for DNA polymerase fidelity.
TLDR
It is proposed that water removal results in a proportional restoration of these contributions to base pairing, and predicts magnified values of delta delta G sufficient to account for polymerase insertion and proofreading fidelity, thereby avoiding the need to postulate additional active site constraints in order to select or reject nucleotides.
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