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Biological studies of post-traumatic stress disorder
TLDR
This Review attempts to present the current state of understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder on the basis of psychophysiological, structural and functional neuroimaging, and endocrinological, genetic and molecular biological studies in humans and in animal models.
Neurobiological Basis of Failure to Recall Extinction Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
TLDR
Findings support the hypothesis that fear extinction is impaired in PTSD and suggest that dysfunctional activation in brain structures that mediate fear extinction learning, and especially its recall, underlie this impairment.
Neurocircuitry Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Extinction: Human Neuroimaging Research—Past, Present, and Future
TLDR
It is proposed that posttraumatic stress disorder is characterized by exaggerated amygdala responses and deficient frontal cortical function and deficiencies in extinction and the capacity to suppress attention/response to trauma-related stimuli, as well as deficient hippocampal function.
Amygdala, Medial Prefrontal Cortex, and Hippocampal Function in PTSD
TLDR
Neuroimaging research reveals heightened amygdala responsivity in PTSD during symptomatic states and during the processing of trauma‐unrelated affective information and suggests diminished volumes, neuronal integrity, and functional integrity of the hippocampus in PTSD.
Exaggerated amygdala response to masked facial stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder: a functional MRI study
TLDR
This work provides the first evidence for exaggerated amygdala responses to general negative stimuli in PTSD by using a probe that emphasizes automaticity and provides initial evidence of amygdala hyperresponsivity dissociated from the "top-down" influences of medial frontal cortex.
A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to overtly presented fearful faces in posttraumatic stress disorder.
TLDR
These results provide evidence for exaggerated amygdala responsivity, diminished medial prefrontal cortexresponsivity, and a reciprocal relationship between these 2 regions during passive viewing of overtly presented affective stimuli unrelated to trauma in PTSD.
Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and beyond: A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies
TLDR
Findings support hyperactive amygdala and hypoactive medial prefrontal regions, but suggest hyperactive hippocampi, and characterization of additional regions under a triple network model showed functional alterations that largely overlapped with the salience network, central executive network, and default network.
The Neurocircuitry of Fear, Stress, and Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders are a significant problem in the community, and recent neuroimaging research has focused on determining the brain circuits that underlie them. Research on the neurocircuitry of
The Multi-Source Interference Task: validation study with fMRI in individual subjects
TLDR
The MSIT's reaction time interference effect was up to 10 times greater than that of its component predecessors and temporally stable over hundreds of trials, making the MSIT a useful task with which to study normal human cognition and psychiatric pathophysiology.
Regional cerebral blood flow in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex during traumatic imagery in male and female Vietnam veterans with PTSD.
TLDR
A reciprocal relationship between medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala function in PTSD and opposing associations between activity in these regions and symptom severity consistent with current functional neuroanatomic models of this disorder are suggested.
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