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The Role of Numeracy in Understanding the Benefit of Screening Mammography
- L. Schwartz, S. Woloshin, William Black, H. Welch
- MedicineAnnals of Internal Medicine
- 1 December 1997
The goal was to understand how numeracy affects women's ability to gauge the benefit of mammography after receiving quantitative information, and to hypothesized that the ability to use quantitative risk information would be related to the level of numeracy.
Helping Doctors and Patients Make Sense of Health Statistics
- G. Gigerenzer, W. Gaissmaier, E. Kurz-Milcke, L. Schwartz, S. Woloshin
- MedicinePsychological science in the public interest : a…
- 1 November 2007
Evidence is provided that statistical illiteracy is common to patients, journalists, and physicians and that information pamphlets, Web sites, leaflets distributed by the pharmaceutical industry, and even medical journals often report evidence in nontransparent forms that suggest big benefits of featured interventions and small harms.
A genetic risk factor for periodic limb movements in sleep.
Time trends in pulmonary embolism in the United States: evidence of overdiagnosis.
The introduction of CTPA was associated with changes consistent with overdiagnosis: rising incidence, minimal change in mortality, and lower case fatality.
Enthusiasm for cancer screening in the United States
The public is enthusiastic about cancer screening, and this enthusiasm creates an environment ripe for the premature diffusion of technologies such as total-body computed tomographic scanning, placing the public at risk of overtesting and overtreatment.
Direct-to-consumer advertisements for prescription drugs: what are Americans being sold?
Advertising by academic medical centers.
Advertising to attract patients is common among top academic medical centers but is not subjected to the oversight standard for clinical research.
Can Patients Interpret Health Information? An Assessment of the Medical Data Interpretation Test
- L. Schwartz, S. Woloshin, H. Welch
- Medicine, PsychologyMedical decision making : an international…
- 1 May 2005
The medical data interpretation test is a reliable and valid measure of the ability to interpret medical statistics.
Skin biopsy rates and incidence of melanoma: population based ecological study
The incidence of melanoma is associated with biopsy rates and the increased incidence being largely the result of increased diagnostic scrutiny and not an increase in the incidence of disease suggests overdiagnosis.
A New Scale for Assessing Perceptions of Chance
- S. Woloshin, L. Schwartz, S. Byram, B. Fischhoff, H. Welch
- PsychologyMedical decision making : an international…
- 1 July 2000
The magnifier scale and the linear number scale are similar in validity, reliability, and usability, however, only the magnifiers makes it possible to elicit perceptions in the low-probability range (<1%).