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Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for inhibition of glucose production
Circulating insulin inhibits endogenous glucose production. Here we report that bidirectional changes in hypothalamic insulin signaling affect glucose production. The infusion of either insulin or aExpand
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Lower blood glucose, hyperglucagonemia, and pancreatic α cell hyperplasia in glucagon receptor knockout mice
Glucagon, the counter-regulatory hormone to insulin, is secreted from pancreatic α cells in response to low blood glucose. To examine the role of glucagon in glucose homeostasis, mice were generatedExpand
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Inhibition of GAPDH activity by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activates three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage in endothelial cells.
In this report, we show that hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron transport chain activates the three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage found inExpand
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  • Open Access
Inhibition of hypothalamic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 decreases food intake and glucose production
The enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) regulates long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) entry into mitochondria, where the LCFAs undergo β-oxidation. To investigate the mechanism(s) by whichExpand
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Hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide overproduction activates the hexosamine pathway and induces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression by increasing Sp1 glycosylation.
The hexosamine pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. We determined first that hyperglycemia induced a decrease in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseExpand
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  • Open Access
Central administration of oleic acid inhibits glucose production and food intake.
The hypothalamus and other regions within the central nervous system (CNS) link the sensing of nutrients to the control of metabolism and feeding behavior. Here, we report thatExpand
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Impaired regulation of hepatic glucose production in mice lacking the forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 in liver.
The hallmark of type 2 diabetes is excessive hepatic glucose production. Several transcription factors and coactivators regulate this process in cultured cells. But gene ablation experiments haveExpand
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  • Open Access
Mechanisms of fatty acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake.
Increased plasma FFA reduce insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The mechanisms responsible for this inhibition, however, remain uncertain. It was the aim of this study to determine whether the FFAExpand
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  • Open Access
Endogenous glucose production is inhibited by the adipose-derived protein Acrp30.
Intraperitoneal injection of purified recombinant Acrp30 lowers glucose levels in mice. To gain insight into the mechanism(s) of this hypoglycemic effect, purified recombinant Acrp30 was infused inExpand
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Decreasing hypothalamic insulin receptors causes hyperphagia and insulin resistance in rats
We investigated the role of hypothalamic insulin signaling in the regulation of energy balance and insulin action in rats through selective decreases in insulin receptor expression in discreteExpand
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