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Identifying and preventing pain in animals
Animals are routinely subjected to painful procedures, such as tail docking for puppies, castration for piglets, dehorning for dairy calves, and surgery for laboratory rats. Disease and injury, suchExpand
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Calf response to caustic paste and hot-iron dehorning using sedation with and without local anesthetic.
Dairy producers require effective methods of reducing the pain associated with dehorning. Previous work has shown that analgesics can reduce pain associated with hot-iron dehorning, but theseExpand
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Rats avoid exposure to carbon dioxide and argon
Abstract A common method for euthanizing laboratory rats is exposure to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas, either in a pre-filled chamber or using a gradually increasing concentration. Physiological andExpand
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Sexual differentiation of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus is not mediated solely by androgen receptors in muscle fibers.
The spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) neuromuscular system is a highly conserved and well-studied model of sexual differentiation of the vertebrate nervous system. Sexual differentiation ofExpand
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Behavioural responses of rats to gradual-fill carbon dioxide euthanasia and reduced oxygen concentrations
Abstract Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is widely used for euthanasia of laboratory rats, but little is known about the pain and distress caused by this procedure. Physiological and human self-report dataExpand
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Effect of flow rate on aversion to gradual-fill carbon dioxide exposure in rats
Abstract Laboratory rats are commonly killed by a gradually increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), but an optimal flow rate for minimizing distress during this procedure has not yet beenExpand
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Evaluation of the efficacy of a novel electronic pain assessment device, the Pain Gauge®, for measuring postoperative pain in rats
One of the major challenges for individuals working with laboratory animals is the recognition and alleviation of pain. The Pain Gauge® is marketed as a pain assessment device that measuresExpand
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Altered anxiety and defensive behaviors in Bax knockout mice
Developmental neuronal cell death is critically regulated by the pro-death protein Bax. Bax-/- mice exhibit increased neuron number, the elimination of several neural sex differences, and alteredExpand
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