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The Changing Shape of Street-Level Heroin and Crack Supply in England: Commuting, Holidaying and Cuckooing Drug Dealers Across ‘County Lines’
Street-level drug markets have traditionally been understood as operating predominantly at a local level, and there has been an absence of contemporary research that has challenged accepted thinkingExpand
Earning a Score: An Exploration of the Nature and Roles of Heroin and Crack Cocaine ‘User-dealers’
Research consistently shows a strong correlation between heroin/crack cocaine use, acquisitive crime and income generation, through activities such as sex work and theft. Less is known however aboutExpand
The normalisation of drug supply: The social supply of drugs as the “other side” of the history of normalisation
Abstract Aims: Describes how the relative normalisation of recreational drug use in the UK has been productive of, and fused with, the relatively normalised and non-commercial social supply ofExpand
Beyond drug dealing: Developing and extending the concept of ‘social supply’ of illicit drugs to ‘minimally commercial supply’
A concept of ‘social supply’ has emerged in the UK that describes drug transactions that are almost exclusively to friends and acquaintances and that are non-commercially motivated. Social suppliersExpand
#Drugsforsale: An exploration of the use of social media and encrypted messaging apps to supply and access drugs.
Though 'social supply' through friends is still typically preferred and there is a degree of wariness toward app-mediated supply, the data indicate that apps are fast becoming a viable option for accessing drugs. Expand
Reflections on three decades of research on ‘social supply’ in the UK
This chapter reviews how forms of friend and acquaintance supply that might be considered less than ‘drug dealing proper’ are not new and have existed over many years. It reflects on how, over time,Expand
Crushing a Walnut With a Sledge Hammer? Analysing the Penal Response to the Social Supply of Illicit Drugs
The evidence base relating to illicit drug markets, drug supply activities and drug seller characteristics increasingly presents a picture of diversity, whereby differing motivations for supplyingExpand
Bourdieu on supply: Utilizing the ‘theory of practice’ to understand complexity and culpability in heroin and crack cocaine user-dealing
The act of user-dealing has largely been explored within criminology in conjunction with the ‘drug–crime’ link or with a focus on ethnography and subculture. Whereas it is known that many users ofExpand
Symbolic policing: situating targeted police operations/‘crackdowns’ on street-level drug markets
ABSTRACT The policing of local drug markets in England often takes the form of specific, high-profile, crackdown operations which themselves are mostly a generic, periodic response to particularExpand
‘Vulnerable’ Kids Going Country: Children and Young People’s Involvement in County Lines Drug Dealing
The article concludes by discussing the challenges of safeguarding young people, particularly that over-worked and under-resourced frontline practitioners can experience difficulties identifying the vulnerability of young people caught up in county lines, particularly beneath their tough exteriors. Expand