The problem of discriminating two different quantum states in the setting of asymptotically many copies is considered, and the minimal probability of error is determined, leading to the identification of the quantum Chernoff bound, thereby solving a long-standing open problem.Expand

Quantum theory (QT) is usually formulated in terms of abstract mathematical postulates involving Hilbert spaces, state vectors and unitary operators. In this paper, we show that the full formalism of… Expand

This article identifies a series of properties common to all theories that do not allow for superluminal signaling and predict the violation of Bell inequalities. Intrinsic randomness, uncertainty… Expand

A new QKD protocol is introduced and its security against any individual attack by an adversary only limited by the no-signaling condition is proved.Expand

This work shows that device-independent QKD is possible with key rates comparable to those of standard schemes, and provides a general security proof for a large class of protocols in a model in which the raw key is generated by independent measurements.Expand

It is shown that asymptotic violation of any of these inequalities by a multipartite state implies that pure-state entanglement can be distilled from it, although the corresponding distillation protocol may require that some of the parties join into several groups.Expand

It is demonstrated that a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality can be demonstrated in a certain kind of Bell experiment for all entangled states, and it is proved that for each entangled state sigma, there exists another state rho not violating the CHSH inequality.Expand

Optimality of this scheme, whose applications include viability of a (stochastic) programmable quantum gate and the teleportation of quantum transformations using entanglement and unidirectional classical communication, is discussed.Expand

This work quantifies the resources needed to cool a system to any temperature, and translates these resources into the minimal time or number of steps, by considering the notion of a thermal machine that obeys similar restrictions to universal computers.Expand

A Bell test is provided that uses arbitrarily imperfect random bits to produce bits that are, under the non-signalling principle assumption, perfectly random, and provides the first protocol attaining full randomness amplification.Expand