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Norwalk virus: How infectious is it?
Noroviruses are major agents of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The infectivity of Norwalk virus, the prototype norovirus, has been studied in susceptible human volunteers. A new variant of the hitExpand
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Mechanisms of GII.4 Norovirus Persistence in Human Populations
Background Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in humans, noted for causing epidemic outbreaks in communities, the military, cruise ships, hospitals, and assisted livingExpand
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Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection
Infectious diseases have influenced population genetics and the evolution of the structure of the human genome in part by selecting for host susceptibility alleles that modify pathogenesis. NorovirusExpand
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Immunogenetic Mechanisms Driving Norovirus GII.4 Antigenic Variation
Noroviruses are the principal cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide with GII.4 strains accounting for 80% of infections. The major capsid protein of GII.4 strains is evolving rapidly, resultingExpand
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Norovirus pathogenesis: mechanisms of persistence and immune evasion in human populations
Summary: Noroviruses are important human pathogens known to cause epidemic outbreaks of severe gastroenteritis in communities, military barracks, cruise ships, hospitals, and assisted livingExpand
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Binding of Norwalk Virus-Like Particles to ABH Histo-Blood Group Antigens Is Blocked by Antisera from Infected Human Volunteers or Experimentally Vaccinated Mice
ABSTRACT Attachment of Norwalk (NV), Snow Mountain (SMV), and Hawaii (HV) virus-like particles (VLPs) to specific ABH histo-blood group antigens was investigated by using human saliva and syntheticExpand
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Viral shape-shifting: norovirus evasion of the human immune system
Noroviruses are the most common cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, and explosive outbreaks frequently occur in community settings, where the virus can immobilize large numbers of infectedExpand
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Cellular and Humoral Immunity following Snow Mountain Virus Challenge
ABSTRACT Little is known about the immune response to noroviruses. To elucidate the immunobiology of norovirus infection in humans, 15 volunteers were challenged with Snow Mountain virus (SMV), aExpand
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Monoclonal Antibody-Based Antigenic Mapping of Norovirus GII.4-2002
ABSTRACT Noroviruses are the primary cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in humans, and GII.4 strains cause ∼80% of the overall disease burden. Surrogate neutralization assays using sera and mouseExpand
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Norovirus Infectivity in Humans and Persistence in Water
ABSTRACT To examine the long-term infectivity of human norovirus in water, 13 study subjects were challenged at different time points with groundwater spiked with the prototype human norovirus,Expand
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