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Norwalk virus: How infectious is it?
TLDR
A new variant of the hit theory model of microbial infection was developed to estimate the variation in Norwalk virus infectivity, as well as the degree of virus aggregation, consistent with independent (electron microscopic) observations.
Mechanisms of GII.4 Norovirus Persistence in Human Populations
TLDR
Molecular mechanisms governing GII.4 epidemiology, susceptibility, and persistence in human populations suggest that the surface-exposed carbohydrate ligand binding domain in the norovirus capsid is under heavy immune selection and likely evolves by antigenic drift in the face of human herd immunity.
Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection
TLDR
It is shown that resistance to Norwalk virus infection is multifactorial, and of the susceptible population that encoded a functional FUT2 gene, a portion was resistant to infection, suggesting that a memory immune response or some other unidentified factor also affords protection from Norovirus infection.
Immunogenetic Mechanisms Driving Norovirus GII.4 Antigenic Variation
TLDR
The hypothesis that GII.4 norovirus evolution is heavily influenced by antigenic variation of neutralizing epitopes and consequently, antibody-driven receptor switching; thus, protective herd immunity is a driving force in norov virus molecular evolution is supported.
Norovirus pathogenesis: mechanisms of persistence and immune evasion in human populations
TLDR
Observations suggest that the norovirus capsid evolves to evade the memory immune response while retaining its ability to bind any of several HBGAs, which allows escape from herd immunity.
Binding of Norwalk Virus-Like Particles to ABH Histo-Blood Group Antigens Is Blocked by Antisera from Infected Human Volunteers or Experimentally Vaccinated Mice
TLDR
Antisera from NV-infected human volunteers, as well as from mice inoculated with packaged Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons expressing NV VLPs, blocked the ability of NV V LPs to bind synthetic H type 1, Leb, and H type 3, suggesting a potential mechanism for antibody-mediated neutralization of NV.
Viral shape-shifting: norovirus evasion of the human immune system
TLDR
This Review discusses the molecular and structural mechanisms that facilitate the persistence of noroviruses in human populations and the evolution of novel immune escape variants.
Cellular and Humoral Immunity following Snow Mountain Virus Challenge
TLDR
This is the first report characterizing T-cell and cytokine responses following live norovirus challenge and it is suggested that previous norov virus exposure in most volunteers is suggested.
Norovirus Infectivity in Humans and Persistence in Water
TLDR
It is demonstrated that Norwalk virus in groundwater can remain detectable for over 3 years and can remain infectious for at least 61 days.
Monoclonal Antibody-Based Antigenic Mapping of Norovirus GII.4-2002
TLDR
A novel, evolving blockade epitope is identified that may be associated with protective immunity, providing further support for the hypotheses that GII.4 norovirus evolution results in antigenic variation that allows the virus to escape from protective herd immunity, resulting in new epidemic strains.
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