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Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission
It is shown that transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is dominated by extreme heterogeneity in the host community, resulting in highly inflated reproductive ratios and the importance of determining contact rates between vectors and host species to understand pathogen transmission dynamics. Expand
A global perspective on the epidemiology of West Nile virus.
This review highlights recent research into WNV epizootiology and epidemiology, including recent advances in understanding of the host-virus interaction at the molecular, organismal, and ecological levels. Expand
"Bird biting" mosquitoes and human disease: a review of the role of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in epidemiology.
The transmission of vector-borne pathogens is greatly influenced by the ecology of their vector, which is in turn shaped by genetic ancestry, the environment, and the hosts that are fed on. One groupExpand
Bacteria of the genus Asaia stably associate with Anopheles stephensi, an Asian malarial mosquito vector
Here, we show that an α-proteobacterium of the genus Asaia is stably associated with larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi, an important mosquito vector of Plasmodium vivax, a main malaria agentExpand
Intrinsic factors affecting vector competence of mosquitoes for arboviruses.
This review focuses on vector competence or vector efficiency, and particular attention is given to recent studies that have contributed to knowledge of intrinsic factors and mechanisms that control the ability of mosquitoes to vector arboviruses. Expand
West Nile Virus Epidemics in North America Are Driven by Shifts in Mosquito Feeding Behavior
It is shown that Culex pipiens, the dominant enzootic and bridge vector of WNV in urbanized areas in the northeast and north-central United States, shifted its feeding preferences from birds to humans by 7-fold during late summer and early fall, coinciding with the dispersal of its preferred host (American robins, Turdus migratorius) and the rise in human WNV infections. Expand
Impact of daily temperature fluctuations on dengue virus transmission by Aedes aegypti
Most studies on the ability of insect populations to transmit pathogens consider only constant temperatures and do not account for realistic daily temperature fluctuations that can impactExpand
Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East.
The phylogenetic trees revealed the presence of two genetic lineages of WN viruses, which can be further subdivided into three monophyletic clades. Expand
Typing of Dengue Viruses in Clinical Specimens and Mosquitoes by Single-Tube Multiplex Reverse Transcriptase PCR
A plasmid-based internal control that produces a uniquely sized product and can be used to control for both reverse transcription or amplification steps without the risk of generating false-positive results is designed. Expand
Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus
In postexposure therapeutic trials in mice, a single dose of humanized E16 protected mice against WNV-induced mortality, and may therefore be a viable treatment option against W NV infection in humans. Expand